Stardust-NExT, Deep Impact, and the accelerating spin of 9P/Tempel 1

Michael J S Belton, Karen J. Meech, Steven Chesley, Jana Pittichová, Brian Carcich, Michal Drahus, Alan Harris, Stephen Gillam, Joseph Veverka, Nicholas Mastrodemos, William Owen, Michael F. A'Hearn, S. Bagnulo, J. Bai, L. Barrera, Fabienne Bastien, James M. Bauer, J. Bedient, B. C. Bhatt, Hermann BoehnhardtN. Brosch, Marc Buie, Pablo Candia, W. P. Chen, P. Chiang, Young Jun Choi, A. Cochran, Christopher J. Crockett, S. Duddy, Tony Farnham, Yan R. Fernández, Pedro Gutiérrez, Olivier R. Hainaut, Donald Hampton, Kimberly A. Herrmann, Henry Hsieh, M. A. Kadooka, H. Kaluna, J. Keane, M. J. Kim, Kenneth Klaasen, J. Kleyna, Kevin Krisciunas, Luisa M. Lara, Tod R. Lauer, Jian Yang Li, Javier Licandro, Carey M. Lisse, Stephen C. Lowry, Lucy McFadden, N. Moskovitz, Beatrice Mueller, D. Polishook, N. S. Raja, T. Riesen, D. K. Sahu, Nalin Samarasinha, G. Sarid, Tomohiko Sekiguchi, S. Sonnett, Nicholas B. Suntzeff, Brian W. Taylor, Peter Thomas, Gian Paolo Tozzi, R. Vasundhara, J. B. Vincent, Lawrence H. Wasserman, Bryant Webster-Schultz, B. Yang, T. Zenn, H. Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The evolution of the spin rate of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 through two perihelion passages (in 2000 and 2005) is determined from 1922 Earth-based observations taken over a period of 13. year as part of a World-Wide observing campaign and from 2888 observations taken over a period of 50 days from the Deep Impact spacecraft. We determine the following sidereal spin rates (periods): 209.023 ± 0.025°/dy (41.335 ± 0.005. h) prior to the 2000 perihelion passage, 210.448 ± 0.016°/dy (41.055 ± 0.003. h) for the interval between the 2000 and 2005 perihelion passages, 211.856 ± 0.030°/dy (40.783 ± 0.006. h) from Deep Impact photometry just prior to the 2005 perihelion passage, and 211.625 ± 0.012°/dy (40.827 ± 0.002. h) in the interval 2006-2010 following the 2005 perihelion passage. The period decreased by 16.8 ± 0.3. min during the 2000 passage and by 13.7 ± 0.2. min during the 2005 passage suggesting a secular decrease in the net torque. The change in spin rate is asymmetric with respect to perihelion with the maximum net torque being applied on approach to perihelion. The Deep Impact data alone show that the spin rate was increasing at a rate of 0.024 ± 0.003°/dy/dy at JD2453530.60510 (i.e., 25.134 dy before impact), which provides independent confirmation of the change seen in the Earth-based observations.The rotational phase of the nucleus at times before and after each perihelion and at the Deep Impact encounter is estimated based on the Thomas et al. (Thomas et al. [2007]. Icarus 187, 4-15) pole and longitude system. The possibility of a 180° error in the rotational phase is assessed and found to be significant. Analytical and physical modeling of the behavior of the spin rate through of each perihelion is presented and used as a basis to predict the rotational state of the nucleus at the time of the nominal (i.e., prior to February 2010) Stardust-NExT encounter on 2011 February 14 at 20:42.We find that a net torque in the range of 0.3-2.5×107kgm2s-2 acts on the nucleus during perihelion passage. The spin rate initially slows down on approach to perihelion and then passes through a minimum. It then accelerates rapidly as it passes through perihelion eventually reaching a maximum post-perihelion. It then decreases to a stable value as the nucleus moves away from the Sun. We find that the pole direction is unlikely to precess by more than ~1° per perihelion passage. The trend of the period with time and the fact that the modeled peak torque occurs before perihelion are in agreement with published accounts of trends in water production rate and suggests that widespread H2O out-gassing from the surface is largely responsible for the observed spin-up.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)345-368
Number of pages24
JournalIcarus
Volume213
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2011

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torque
nuclei
encounters
poles
Tempel 1 comet
intervals
trends
rate
rotational states
longitude
comet
photometry
spacecraft
water
modeling
trend

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Belton, M. J. S., Meech, K. J., Chesley, S., Pittichová, J., Carcich, B., Drahus, M., ... Zhao, H. (2011). Stardust-NExT, Deep Impact, and the accelerating spin of 9P/Tempel 1. Icarus, 213(1), 345-368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2011.01.006
Belton, Michael J S ; Meech, Karen J. ; Chesley, Steven ; Pittichová, Jana ; Carcich, Brian ; Drahus, Michal ; Harris, Alan ; Gillam, Stephen ; Veverka, Joseph ; Mastrodemos, Nicholas ; Owen, William ; A'Hearn, Michael F. ; Bagnulo, S. ; Bai, J. ; Barrera, L. ; Bastien, Fabienne ; Bauer, James M. ; Bedient, J. ; Bhatt, B. C. ; Boehnhardt, Hermann ; Brosch, N. ; Buie, Marc ; Candia, Pablo ; Chen, W. P. ; Chiang, P. ; Choi, Young Jun ; Cochran, A. ; Crockett, Christopher J. ; Duddy, S. ; Farnham, Tony ; Fernández, Yan R. ; Gutiérrez, Pedro ; Hainaut, Olivier R. ; Hampton, Donald ; Herrmann, Kimberly A. ; Hsieh, Henry ; Kadooka, M. A. ; Kaluna, H. ; Keane, J. ; Kim, M. J. ; Klaasen, Kenneth ; Kleyna, J. ; Krisciunas, Kevin ; Lara, Luisa M. ; Lauer, Tod R. ; Li, Jian Yang ; Licandro, Javier ; Lisse, Carey M. ; Lowry, Stephen C. ; McFadden, Lucy ; Moskovitz, N. ; Mueller, Beatrice ; Polishook, D. ; Raja, N. S. ; Riesen, T. ; Sahu, D. K. ; Samarasinha, Nalin ; Sarid, G. ; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko ; Sonnett, S. ; Suntzeff, Nicholas B. ; Taylor, Brian W. ; Thomas, Peter ; Tozzi, Gian Paolo ; Vasundhara, R. ; Vincent, J. B. ; Wasserman, Lawrence H. ; Webster-Schultz, Bryant ; Yang, B. ; Zenn, T. ; Zhao, H. / Stardust-NExT, Deep Impact, and the accelerating spin of 9P/Tempel 1. In: Icarus. 2011 ; Vol. 213, No. 1. pp. 345-368.
@article{fedffe19f2a64696a0b37bfa4c79aad1,
title = "Stardust-NExT, Deep Impact, and the accelerating spin of 9P/Tempel 1",
abstract = "The evolution of the spin rate of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 through two perihelion passages (in 2000 and 2005) is determined from 1922 Earth-based observations taken over a period of 13. year as part of a World-Wide observing campaign and from 2888 observations taken over a period of 50 days from the Deep Impact spacecraft. We determine the following sidereal spin rates (periods): 209.023 ± 0.025°/dy (41.335 ± 0.005. h) prior to the 2000 perihelion passage, 210.448 ± 0.016°/dy (41.055 ± 0.003. h) for the interval between the 2000 and 2005 perihelion passages, 211.856 ± 0.030°/dy (40.783 ± 0.006. h) from Deep Impact photometry just prior to the 2005 perihelion passage, and 211.625 ± 0.012°/dy (40.827 ± 0.002. h) in the interval 2006-2010 following the 2005 perihelion passage. The period decreased by 16.8 ± 0.3. min during the 2000 passage and by 13.7 ± 0.2. min during the 2005 passage suggesting a secular decrease in the net torque. The change in spin rate is asymmetric with respect to perihelion with the maximum net torque being applied on approach to perihelion. The Deep Impact data alone show that the spin rate was increasing at a rate of 0.024 ± 0.003°/dy/dy at JD2453530.60510 (i.e., 25.134 dy before impact), which provides independent confirmation of the change seen in the Earth-based observations.The rotational phase of the nucleus at times before and after each perihelion and at the Deep Impact encounter is estimated based on the Thomas et al. (Thomas et al. [2007]. Icarus 187, 4-15) pole and longitude system. The possibility of a 180° error in the rotational phase is assessed and found to be significant. Analytical and physical modeling of the behavior of the spin rate through of each perihelion is presented and used as a basis to predict the rotational state of the nucleus at the time of the nominal (i.e., prior to February 2010) Stardust-NExT encounter on 2011 February 14 at 20:42.We find that a net torque in the range of 0.3-2.5×107kgm2s-2 acts on the nucleus during perihelion passage. The spin rate initially slows down on approach to perihelion and then passes through a minimum. It then accelerates rapidly as it passes through perihelion eventually reaching a maximum post-perihelion. It then decreases to a stable value as the nucleus moves away from the Sun. We find that the pole direction is unlikely to precess by more than ~1° per perihelion passage. The trend of the period with time and the fact that the modeled peak torque occurs before perihelion are in agreement with published accounts of trends in water production rate and suggests that widespread H2O out-gassing from the surface is largely responsible for the observed spin-up.",
author = "Belton, {Michael J S} and Meech, {Karen J.} and Steven Chesley and Jana Pittichov{\'a} and Brian Carcich and Michal Drahus and Alan Harris and Stephen Gillam and Joseph Veverka and Nicholas Mastrodemos and William Owen and A'Hearn, {Michael F.} and S. Bagnulo and J. Bai and L. Barrera and Fabienne Bastien and Bauer, {James M.} and J. Bedient and Bhatt, {B. C.} and Hermann Boehnhardt and N. Brosch and Marc Buie and Pablo Candia and Chen, {W. P.} and P. Chiang and Choi, {Young Jun} and A. Cochran and Crockett, {Christopher J.} and S. Duddy and Tony Farnham and Fern{\'a}ndez, {Yan R.} and Pedro Guti{\'e}rrez and Hainaut, {Olivier R.} and Donald Hampton and Herrmann, {Kimberly A.} and Henry Hsieh and Kadooka, {M. A.} and H. Kaluna and J. Keane and Kim, {M. J.} and Kenneth Klaasen and J. Kleyna and Kevin Krisciunas and Lara, {Luisa M.} and Lauer, {Tod R.} and Li, {Jian Yang} and Javier Licandro and Lisse, {Carey M.} and Lowry, {Stephen C.} and Lucy McFadden and N. Moskovitz and Beatrice Mueller and D. Polishook and Raja, {N. S.} and T. Riesen and Sahu, {D. K.} and Nalin Samarasinha and G. Sarid and Tomohiko Sekiguchi and S. Sonnett and Suntzeff, {Nicholas B.} and Taylor, {Brian W.} and Peter Thomas and Tozzi, {Gian Paolo} and R. Vasundhara and Vincent, {J. B.} and Wasserman, {Lawrence H.} and Bryant Webster-Schultz and B. Yang and T. Zenn and H. Zhao",
year = "2011",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.icarus.2011.01.006",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "213",
pages = "345--368",
journal = "Icarus",
issn = "0019-1035",
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Belton, MJS, Meech, KJ, Chesley, S, Pittichová, J, Carcich, B, Drahus, M, Harris, A, Gillam, S, Veverka, J, Mastrodemos, N, Owen, W, A'Hearn, MF, Bagnulo, S, Bai, J, Barrera, L, Bastien, F, Bauer, JM, Bedient, J, Bhatt, BC, Boehnhardt, H, Brosch, N, Buie, M, Candia, P, Chen, WP, Chiang, P, Choi, YJ, Cochran, A, Crockett, CJ, Duddy, S, Farnham, T, Fernández, YR, Gutiérrez, P, Hainaut, OR, Hampton, D, Herrmann, KA, Hsieh, H, Kadooka, MA, Kaluna, H, Keane, J, Kim, MJ, Klaasen, K, Kleyna, J, Krisciunas, K, Lara, LM, Lauer, TR, Li, JY, Licandro, J, Lisse, CM, Lowry, SC, McFadden, L, Moskovitz, N, Mueller, B, Polishook, D, Raja, NS, Riesen, T, Sahu, DK, Samarasinha, N, Sarid, G, Sekiguchi, T, Sonnett, S, Suntzeff, NB, Taylor, BW, Thomas, P, Tozzi, GP, Vasundhara, R, Vincent, JB, Wasserman, LH, Webster-Schultz, B, Yang, B, Zenn, T & Zhao, H 2011, 'Stardust-NExT, Deep Impact, and the accelerating spin of 9P/Tempel 1', Icarus, vol. 213, no. 1, pp. 345-368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2011.01.006

Stardust-NExT, Deep Impact, and the accelerating spin of 9P/Tempel 1. / Belton, Michael J S; Meech, Karen J.; Chesley, Steven; Pittichová, Jana; Carcich, Brian; Drahus, Michal; Harris, Alan; Gillam, Stephen; Veverka, Joseph; Mastrodemos, Nicholas; Owen, William; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Bagnulo, S.; Bai, J.; Barrera, L.; Bastien, Fabienne; Bauer, James M.; Bedient, J.; Bhatt, B. C.; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Brosch, N.; Buie, Marc; Candia, Pablo; Chen, W. P.; Chiang, P.; Choi, Young Jun; Cochran, A.; Crockett, Christopher J.; Duddy, S.; Farnham, Tony; Fernández, Yan R.; Gutiérrez, Pedro; Hainaut, Olivier R.; Hampton, Donald; Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Hsieh, Henry; Kadooka, M. A.; Kaluna, H.; Keane, J.; Kim, M. J.; Klaasen, Kenneth; Kleyna, J.; Krisciunas, Kevin; Lara, Luisa M.; Lauer, Tod R.; Li, Jian Yang; Licandro, Javier; Lisse, Carey M.; Lowry, Stephen C.; McFadden, Lucy; Moskovitz, N.; Mueller, Beatrice; Polishook, D.; Raja, N. S.; Riesen, T.; Sahu, D. K.; Samarasinha, Nalin; Sarid, G.; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Sonnett, S.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Taylor, Brian W.; Thomas, Peter; Tozzi, Gian Paolo; Vasundhara, R.; Vincent, J. B.; Wasserman, Lawrence H.; Webster-Schultz, Bryant; Yang, B.; Zenn, T.; Zhao, H.

In: Icarus, Vol. 213, No. 1, 01.05.2011, p. 345-368.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Stardust-NExT, Deep Impact, and the accelerating spin of 9P/Tempel 1

AU - Belton, Michael J S

AU - Meech, Karen J.

AU - Chesley, Steven

AU - Pittichová, Jana

AU - Carcich, Brian

AU - Drahus, Michal

AU - Harris, Alan

AU - Gillam, Stephen

AU - Veverka, Joseph

AU - Mastrodemos, Nicholas

AU - Owen, William

AU - A'Hearn, Michael F.

AU - Bagnulo, S.

AU - Bai, J.

AU - Barrera, L.

AU - Bastien, Fabienne

AU - Bauer, James M.

AU - Bedient, J.

AU - Bhatt, B. C.

AU - Boehnhardt, Hermann

AU - Brosch, N.

AU - Buie, Marc

AU - Candia, Pablo

AU - Chen, W. P.

AU - Chiang, P.

AU - Choi, Young Jun

AU - Cochran, A.

AU - Crockett, Christopher J.

AU - Duddy, S.

AU - Farnham, Tony

AU - Fernández, Yan R.

AU - Gutiérrez, Pedro

AU - Hainaut, Olivier R.

AU - Hampton, Donald

AU - Herrmann, Kimberly A.

AU - Hsieh, Henry

AU - Kadooka, M. A.

AU - Kaluna, H.

AU - Keane, J.

AU - Kim, M. J.

AU - Klaasen, Kenneth

AU - Kleyna, J.

AU - Krisciunas, Kevin

AU - Lara, Luisa M.

AU - Lauer, Tod R.

AU - Li, Jian Yang

AU - Licandro, Javier

AU - Lisse, Carey M.

AU - Lowry, Stephen C.

AU - McFadden, Lucy

AU - Moskovitz, N.

AU - Mueller, Beatrice

AU - Polishook, D.

AU - Raja, N. S.

AU - Riesen, T.

AU - Sahu, D. K.

AU - Samarasinha, Nalin

AU - Sarid, G.

AU - Sekiguchi, Tomohiko

AU - Sonnett, S.

AU - Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

AU - Taylor, Brian W.

AU - Thomas, Peter

AU - Tozzi, Gian Paolo

AU - Vasundhara, R.

AU - Vincent, J. B.

AU - Wasserman, Lawrence H.

AU - Webster-Schultz, Bryant

AU - Yang, B.

AU - Zenn, T.

AU - Zhao, H.

PY - 2011/5/1

Y1 - 2011/5/1

N2 - The evolution of the spin rate of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 through two perihelion passages (in 2000 and 2005) is determined from 1922 Earth-based observations taken over a period of 13. year as part of a World-Wide observing campaign and from 2888 observations taken over a period of 50 days from the Deep Impact spacecraft. We determine the following sidereal spin rates (periods): 209.023 ± 0.025°/dy (41.335 ± 0.005. h) prior to the 2000 perihelion passage, 210.448 ± 0.016°/dy (41.055 ± 0.003. h) for the interval between the 2000 and 2005 perihelion passages, 211.856 ± 0.030°/dy (40.783 ± 0.006. h) from Deep Impact photometry just prior to the 2005 perihelion passage, and 211.625 ± 0.012°/dy (40.827 ± 0.002. h) in the interval 2006-2010 following the 2005 perihelion passage. The period decreased by 16.8 ± 0.3. min during the 2000 passage and by 13.7 ± 0.2. min during the 2005 passage suggesting a secular decrease in the net torque. The change in spin rate is asymmetric with respect to perihelion with the maximum net torque being applied on approach to perihelion. The Deep Impact data alone show that the spin rate was increasing at a rate of 0.024 ± 0.003°/dy/dy at JD2453530.60510 (i.e., 25.134 dy before impact), which provides independent confirmation of the change seen in the Earth-based observations.The rotational phase of the nucleus at times before and after each perihelion and at the Deep Impact encounter is estimated based on the Thomas et al. (Thomas et al. [2007]. Icarus 187, 4-15) pole and longitude system. The possibility of a 180° error in the rotational phase is assessed and found to be significant. Analytical and physical modeling of the behavior of the spin rate through of each perihelion is presented and used as a basis to predict the rotational state of the nucleus at the time of the nominal (i.e., prior to February 2010) Stardust-NExT encounter on 2011 February 14 at 20:42.We find that a net torque in the range of 0.3-2.5×107kgm2s-2 acts on the nucleus during perihelion passage. The spin rate initially slows down on approach to perihelion and then passes through a minimum. It then accelerates rapidly as it passes through perihelion eventually reaching a maximum post-perihelion. It then decreases to a stable value as the nucleus moves away from the Sun. We find that the pole direction is unlikely to precess by more than ~1° per perihelion passage. The trend of the period with time and the fact that the modeled peak torque occurs before perihelion are in agreement with published accounts of trends in water production rate and suggests that widespread H2O out-gassing from the surface is largely responsible for the observed spin-up.

AB - The evolution of the spin rate of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 through two perihelion passages (in 2000 and 2005) is determined from 1922 Earth-based observations taken over a period of 13. year as part of a World-Wide observing campaign and from 2888 observations taken over a period of 50 days from the Deep Impact spacecraft. We determine the following sidereal spin rates (periods): 209.023 ± 0.025°/dy (41.335 ± 0.005. h) prior to the 2000 perihelion passage, 210.448 ± 0.016°/dy (41.055 ± 0.003. h) for the interval between the 2000 and 2005 perihelion passages, 211.856 ± 0.030°/dy (40.783 ± 0.006. h) from Deep Impact photometry just prior to the 2005 perihelion passage, and 211.625 ± 0.012°/dy (40.827 ± 0.002. h) in the interval 2006-2010 following the 2005 perihelion passage. The period decreased by 16.8 ± 0.3. min during the 2000 passage and by 13.7 ± 0.2. min during the 2005 passage suggesting a secular decrease in the net torque. The change in spin rate is asymmetric with respect to perihelion with the maximum net torque being applied on approach to perihelion. The Deep Impact data alone show that the spin rate was increasing at a rate of 0.024 ± 0.003°/dy/dy at JD2453530.60510 (i.e., 25.134 dy before impact), which provides independent confirmation of the change seen in the Earth-based observations.The rotational phase of the nucleus at times before and after each perihelion and at the Deep Impact encounter is estimated based on the Thomas et al. (Thomas et al. [2007]. Icarus 187, 4-15) pole and longitude system. The possibility of a 180° error in the rotational phase is assessed and found to be significant. Analytical and physical modeling of the behavior of the spin rate through of each perihelion is presented and used as a basis to predict the rotational state of the nucleus at the time of the nominal (i.e., prior to February 2010) Stardust-NExT encounter on 2011 February 14 at 20:42.We find that a net torque in the range of 0.3-2.5×107kgm2s-2 acts on the nucleus during perihelion passage. The spin rate initially slows down on approach to perihelion and then passes through a minimum. It then accelerates rapidly as it passes through perihelion eventually reaching a maximum post-perihelion. It then decreases to a stable value as the nucleus moves away from the Sun. We find that the pole direction is unlikely to precess by more than ~1° per perihelion passage. The trend of the period with time and the fact that the modeled peak torque occurs before perihelion are in agreement with published accounts of trends in water production rate and suggests that widespread H2O out-gassing from the surface is largely responsible for the observed spin-up.

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UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79955165849&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.icarus.2011.01.006

DO - 10.1016/j.icarus.2011.01.006

M3 - Article

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VL - 213

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EP - 368

JO - Icarus

JF - Icarus

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Belton MJS, Meech KJ, Chesley S, Pittichová J, Carcich B, Drahus M et al. Stardust-NExT, Deep Impact, and the accelerating spin of 9P/Tempel 1. Icarus. 2011 May 1;213(1):345-368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2011.01.006