State of the field: Extreme precision radial velocities

Debra A. Fischer, Guillem Anglada-Escude, Pamela Arriagada, Roman V. Baluev, Jacob L. Bean, Francois Bouchy, Lars A. Buchhave, Thorsten Carroll, Abhijit Chakraborty, Justin R. Crepp, Rebekah I. Dawson, Scott A. Diddams, Xavier Dumusque, Jason D. Eastman, Michael Endl, Pedro Figueira, Eric B. Ford, Daniel Foreman-Mackey, Paul Fournier, Gabor FűrészB. Scott Gaudi, Philip C. Gregory, Frank Grundahl, Artie P. Hatzes, Guillaume Hébrard, Enrique Herrero, David W. Hogg, Andrew W. Howard, John A. Johnson, Paul Jorden, Colby A. Jurgenson, David W. Latham, Greg Laughlin, Thomas J. Loredo, Christophe Lovis, Suvrath Mahadevan, Tyler M. McCracken, Francesco Pepe, Mario Perez, David F. Phillips, Peter P. Plavchan, Lisa Prato, Andreas Quirrenbach, Ansgar Reiners, Paul Robertson, Nuno C. Santos, David Sawyer, Damien Segransan, Alessandro Sozzetti, Tilo Steinmetz, Andrew Szentgyorgyi, Stéphane Udry, Jeff A. Valenti, Sharon X. Wang, Robert A. Wittenmyer, Jason T. Wright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

100 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Second Workshop on Extreme Precision Radial Velocities defined circa 2015 the state of the art Doppler precision and identified the critical path challenges for reaching 10 cm s−1 measurement precision. The presentations and discussion of key issues for instrumentation and data analysis and the workshop recommendations for achieving this bold precision are summarized here. Beginning with the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher spectrograph, technological advances for precision radial velocity (RV) measurements have focused on building extremely stable instruments. To reach still higher precision, future spectrometers will need to improve upon the state of the art, producing even higher fidelity spectra. This should be possible with improved environmental control, greater stability in the illumination of the spectrometer optics, better detectors, more precise wavelength calibration, and broader bandwidth spectra. Key data analysis challenges for the precision RV community include distinguishing center of mass (COM) Keplerian motion from photospheric velocities (time correlated noise) and the proper treatment of telluric contamination. Success here is coupled to the instrument design, but also requires the implementation of robust statistical and modeling techniques. COM velocities produce Doppler shifts that affect every line identically, while photospheric velocities produce line profile asymmetries with wavelength and temporal dependencies that are different from Keplerian signals. Exoplanets are an important subfield of astronomy and there has been an impressive rate of discovery over the past two decades. However, higher precision RV measurements are required to serve as a discovery technique for potentially habitable worlds, to confirm and characterize detections from transit missions, and to provide mass measurements for other space-based missions. The future of exoplanet science has very different trajectories depending on the precision that can ultimately be achieved with Doppler measurements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number066001
JournalPublications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
Volume128
Issue number964
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2016

Fingerprint

radial velocity
extrasolar planets
velocity measurement
center of mass
spectrometer
spectrometers
environmental control
wavelength
transit
astronomy
recommendations
wavelengths
spectrographs
instrumentation
planets
asymmetry
contamination
planet
illumination
trajectory

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Fischer, D. A., Anglada-Escude, G., Arriagada, P., Baluev, R. V., Bean, J. L., Bouchy, F., ... Wright, J. T. (2016). State of the field: Extreme precision radial velocities. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 128(964), [066001]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1538-3873/128/964/066001
Fischer, Debra A. ; Anglada-Escude, Guillem ; Arriagada, Pamela ; Baluev, Roman V. ; Bean, Jacob L. ; Bouchy, Francois ; Buchhave, Lars A. ; Carroll, Thorsten ; Chakraborty, Abhijit ; Crepp, Justin R. ; Dawson, Rebekah I. ; Diddams, Scott A. ; Dumusque, Xavier ; Eastman, Jason D. ; Endl, Michael ; Figueira, Pedro ; Ford, Eric B. ; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel ; Fournier, Paul ; Fűrész, Gabor ; Gaudi, B. Scott ; Gregory, Philip C. ; Grundahl, Frank ; Hatzes, Artie P. ; Hébrard, Guillaume ; Herrero, Enrique ; Hogg, David W. ; Howard, Andrew W. ; Johnson, John A. ; Jorden, Paul ; Jurgenson, Colby A. ; Latham, David W. ; Laughlin, Greg ; Loredo, Thomas J. ; Lovis, Christophe ; Mahadevan, Suvrath ; McCracken, Tyler M. ; Pepe, Francesco ; Perez, Mario ; Phillips, David F. ; Plavchan, Peter P. ; Prato, Lisa ; Quirrenbach, Andreas ; Reiners, Ansgar ; Robertson, Paul ; Santos, Nuno C. ; Sawyer, David ; Segransan, Damien ; Sozzetti, Alessandro ; Steinmetz, Tilo ; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew ; Udry, Stéphane ; Valenti, Jeff A. ; Wang, Sharon X. ; Wittenmyer, Robert A. ; Wright, Jason T. / State of the field : Extreme precision radial velocities. In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 2016 ; Vol. 128, No. 964.
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abstract = "The Second Workshop on Extreme Precision Radial Velocities defined circa 2015 the state of the art Doppler precision and identified the critical path challenges for reaching 10 cm s−1 measurement precision. The presentations and discussion of key issues for instrumentation and data analysis and the workshop recommendations for achieving this bold precision are summarized here. Beginning with the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher spectrograph, technological advances for precision radial velocity (RV) measurements have focused on building extremely stable instruments. To reach still higher precision, future spectrometers will need to improve upon the state of the art, producing even higher fidelity spectra. This should be possible with improved environmental control, greater stability in the illumination of the spectrometer optics, better detectors, more precise wavelength calibration, and broader bandwidth spectra. Key data analysis challenges for the precision RV community include distinguishing center of mass (COM) Keplerian motion from photospheric velocities (time correlated noise) and the proper treatment of telluric contamination. Success here is coupled to the instrument design, but also requires the implementation of robust statistical and modeling techniques. COM velocities produce Doppler shifts that affect every line identically, while photospheric velocities produce line profile asymmetries with wavelength and temporal dependencies that are different from Keplerian signals. Exoplanets are an important subfield of astronomy and there has been an impressive rate of discovery over the past two decades. However, higher precision RV measurements are required to serve as a discovery technique for potentially habitable worlds, to confirm and characterize detections from transit missions, and to provide mass measurements for other space-based missions. The future of exoplanet science has very different trajectories depending on the precision that can ultimately be achieved with Doppler measurements.",
author = "Fischer, {Debra A.} and Guillem Anglada-Escude and Pamela Arriagada and Baluev, {Roman V.} and Bean, {Jacob L.} and Francois Bouchy and Buchhave, {Lars A.} and Thorsten Carroll and Abhijit Chakraborty and Crepp, {Justin R.} and Dawson, {Rebekah I.} and Diddams, {Scott A.} and Xavier Dumusque and Eastman, {Jason D.} and Michael Endl and Pedro Figueira and Ford, {Eric B.} and Daniel Foreman-Mackey and Paul Fournier and Gabor Fűr{\'e}sz and Gaudi, {B. Scott} and Gregory, {Philip C.} and Frank Grundahl and Hatzes, {Artie P.} and Guillaume H{\'e}brard and Enrique Herrero and Hogg, {David W.} and Howard, {Andrew W.} and Johnson, {John A.} and Paul Jorden and Jurgenson, {Colby A.} and Latham, {David W.} and Greg Laughlin and Loredo, {Thomas J.} and Christophe Lovis and Suvrath Mahadevan and McCracken, {Tyler M.} and Francesco Pepe and Mario Perez and Phillips, {David F.} and Plavchan, {Peter P.} and Lisa Prato and Andreas Quirrenbach and Ansgar Reiners and Paul Robertson and Santos, {Nuno C.} and David Sawyer and Damien Segransan and Alessandro Sozzetti and Tilo Steinmetz and Andrew Szentgyorgyi and St{\'e}phane Udry and Valenti, {Jeff A.} and Wang, {Sharon X.} and Wittenmyer, {Robert A.} and Wright, {Jason T.}",
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Fischer, DA, Anglada-Escude, G, Arriagada, P, Baluev, RV, Bean, JL, Bouchy, F, Buchhave, LA, Carroll, T, Chakraborty, A, Crepp, JR, Dawson, RI, Diddams, SA, Dumusque, X, Eastman, JD, Endl, M, Figueira, P, Ford, EB, Foreman-Mackey, D, Fournier, P, Fűrész, G, Gaudi, BS, Gregory, PC, Grundahl, F, Hatzes, AP, Hébrard, G, Herrero, E, Hogg, DW, Howard, AW, Johnson, JA, Jorden, P, Jurgenson, CA, Latham, DW, Laughlin, G, Loredo, TJ, Lovis, C, Mahadevan, S, McCracken, TM, Pepe, F, Perez, M, Phillips, DF, Plavchan, PP, Prato, L, Quirrenbach, A, Reiners, A, Robertson, P, Santos, NC, Sawyer, D, Segransan, D, Sozzetti, A, Steinmetz, T, Szentgyorgyi, A, Udry, S, Valenti, JA, Wang, SX, Wittenmyer, RA & Wright, JT 2016, 'State of the field: Extreme precision radial velocities', Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, vol. 128, no. 964, 066001. https://doi.org/10.1088/1538-3873/128/964/066001

State of the field : Extreme precision radial velocities. / Fischer, Debra A.; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Arriagada, Pamela; Baluev, Roman V.; Bean, Jacob L.; Bouchy, Francois; Buchhave, Lars A.; Carroll, Thorsten; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Crepp, Justin R.; Dawson, Rebekah I.; Diddams, Scott A.; Dumusque, Xavier; Eastman, Jason D.; Endl, Michael; Figueira, Pedro; Ford, Eric B.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Fournier, Paul; Fűrész, Gabor; Gaudi, B. Scott; Gregory, Philip C.; Grundahl, Frank; Hatzes, Artie P.; Hébrard, Guillaume; Herrero, Enrique; Hogg, David W.; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John A.; Jorden, Paul; Jurgenson, Colby A.; Latham, David W.; Laughlin, Greg; Loredo, Thomas J.; Lovis, Christophe; Mahadevan, Suvrath; McCracken, Tyler M.; Pepe, Francesco; Perez, Mario; Phillips, David F.; Plavchan, Peter P.; Prato, Lisa; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Reiners, Ansgar; Robertson, Paul; Santos, Nuno C.; Sawyer, David; Segransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Steinmetz, Tilo; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Udry, Stéphane; Valenti, Jeff A.; Wang, Sharon X.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Wright, Jason T.

In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 128, No. 964, 066001, 06.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - State of the field

T2 - Extreme precision radial velocities

AU - Fischer, Debra A.

AU - Anglada-Escude, Guillem

AU - Arriagada, Pamela

AU - Baluev, Roman V.

AU - Bean, Jacob L.

AU - Bouchy, Francois

AU - Buchhave, Lars A.

AU - Carroll, Thorsten

AU - Chakraborty, Abhijit

AU - Crepp, Justin R.

AU - Dawson, Rebekah I.

AU - Diddams, Scott A.

AU - Dumusque, Xavier

AU - Eastman, Jason D.

AU - Endl, Michael

AU - Figueira, Pedro

AU - Ford, Eric B.

AU - Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

AU - Fournier, Paul

AU - Fűrész, Gabor

AU - Gaudi, B. Scott

AU - Gregory, Philip C.

AU - Grundahl, Frank

AU - Hatzes, Artie P.

AU - Hébrard, Guillaume

AU - Herrero, Enrique

AU - Hogg, David W.

AU - Howard, Andrew W.

AU - Johnson, John A.

AU - Jorden, Paul

AU - Jurgenson, Colby A.

AU - Latham, David W.

AU - Laughlin, Greg

AU - Loredo, Thomas J.

AU - Lovis, Christophe

AU - Mahadevan, Suvrath

AU - McCracken, Tyler M.

AU - Pepe, Francesco

AU - Perez, Mario

AU - Phillips, David F.

AU - Plavchan, Peter P.

AU - Prato, Lisa

AU - Quirrenbach, Andreas

AU - Reiners, Ansgar

AU - Robertson, Paul

AU - Santos, Nuno C.

AU - Sawyer, David

AU - Segransan, Damien

AU - Sozzetti, Alessandro

AU - Steinmetz, Tilo

AU - Szentgyorgyi, Andrew

AU - Udry, Stéphane

AU - Valenti, Jeff A.

AU - Wang, Sharon X.

AU - Wittenmyer, Robert A.

AU - Wright, Jason T.

PY - 2016/6

Y1 - 2016/6

N2 - The Second Workshop on Extreme Precision Radial Velocities defined circa 2015 the state of the art Doppler precision and identified the critical path challenges for reaching 10 cm s−1 measurement precision. The presentations and discussion of key issues for instrumentation and data analysis and the workshop recommendations for achieving this bold precision are summarized here. Beginning with the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher spectrograph, technological advances for precision radial velocity (RV) measurements have focused on building extremely stable instruments. To reach still higher precision, future spectrometers will need to improve upon the state of the art, producing even higher fidelity spectra. This should be possible with improved environmental control, greater stability in the illumination of the spectrometer optics, better detectors, more precise wavelength calibration, and broader bandwidth spectra. Key data analysis challenges for the precision RV community include distinguishing center of mass (COM) Keplerian motion from photospheric velocities (time correlated noise) and the proper treatment of telluric contamination. Success here is coupled to the instrument design, but also requires the implementation of robust statistical and modeling techniques. COM velocities produce Doppler shifts that affect every line identically, while photospheric velocities produce line profile asymmetries with wavelength and temporal dependencies that are different from Keplerian signals. Exoplanets are an important subfield of astronomy and there has been an impressive rate of discovery over the past two decades. However, higher precision RV measurements are required to serve as a discovery technique for potentially habitable worlds, to confirm and characterize detections from transit missions, and to provide mass measurements for other space-based missions. The future of exoplanet science has very different trajectories depending on the precision that can ultimately be achieved with Doppler measurements.

AB - The Second Workshop on Extreme Precision Radial Velocities defined circa 2015 the state of the art Doppler precision and identified the critical path challenges for reaching 10 cm s−1 measurement precision. The presentations and discussion of key issues for instrumentation and data analysis and the workshop recommendations for achieving this bold precision are summarized here. Beginning with the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher spectrograph, technological advances for precision radial velocity (RV) measurements have focused on building extremely stable instruments. To reach still higher precision, future spectrometers will need to improve upon the state of the art, producing even higher fidelity spectra. This should be possible with improved environmental control, greater stability in the illumination of the spectrometer optics, better detectors, more precise wavelength calibration, and broader bandwidth spectra. Key data analysis challenges for the precision RV community include distinguishing center of mass (COM) Keplerian motion from photospheric velocities (time correlated noise) and the proper treatment of telluric contamination. Success here is coupled to the instrument design, but also requires the implementation of robust statistical and modeling techniques. COM velocities produce Doppler shifts that affect every line identically, while photospheric velocities produce line profile asymmetries with wavelength and temporal dependencies that are different from Keplerian signals. Exoplanets are an important subfield of astronomy and there has been an impressive rate of discovery over the past two decades. However, higher precision RV measurements are required to serve as a discovery technique for potentially habitable worlds, to confirm and characterize detections from transit missions, and to provide mass measurements for other space-based missions. The future of exoplanet science has very different trajectories depending on the precision that can ultimately be achieved with Doppler measurements.

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Fischer DA, Anglada-Escude G, Arriagada P, Baluev RV, Bean JL, Bouchy F et al. State of the field: Extreme precision radial velocities. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 2016 Jun;128(964). 066001. https://doi.org/10.1088/1538-3873/128/964/066001