Herein, we describe a novel colloidal lithographic strategy for the stepwise patterning of planar substrates with numerous complex and unique designs. In conjunction with colloidal self-assembly, imprint molding, and capillary force lithography, reactive ion etching was used to create complex libraries of nanoscale features. This combinatorial strategy affords the ability to develop an exponentially increasing number of two-dimensional nanoscale patterns with each sequential step in the process. Specifically, dots, triangles, circles, and lines could be assembled on the surface separately and in combination with each other. Numerous architectures are obtained for the first time with high uniformity and reproducibility. These hexagonal arrays were made from polystyrene and gold features, whereby each surface element could be tuned from the micrometer size scale down to line widths of ∼35 nm. The patterned area could be 1 cm2 or even larger. The techniques described herein can be combined with further steps to make even larger libraries. Moreover, these polymer and metal features may prove useful in optical, sensing, and electronic applications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces