Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature pertaining to the anatomy, biomechanics, and treatment of the sternoclavicular joint and its injuries. Recent findings: There have been a number of reviews attempting to synthesize the current recommendations for the treatment of sternoclavicular joint injuries. In addition, new research has been done in an attempt to better define the role of the many ligaments contributing to the stability of the sternoclavicular joint. These have illustrated the importance of the posterior sternoclavicular capsular ligament in the maintenance of anteroposterior stability. The role of ultrasound in the intraoperative decision-making process of sternoclavicular joint injuries has also been evaluated in clinical studies and is discussed. There has also been work comparing the relative strength of various reconstruction methods, which is reviewed. Summary: Although there has been a small but significant advancement in the cumulative knowledge of the sternoclavicular joint, there still remain a number of unanswered questions. Controlled comparisons of the variety of treatment methods will be needed to reliably assess clinical outcomes.
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