Background: There is a scarcity of long-term data on steroid-free immunosuppression using alemtuzumab in pediatric kidney transplantation (KTx). This study examines long-term outcomes with alemtuzumab without steroid maintenance therapy in pediatric KTx. Methods: From July 2005 to June 2015, 71 pediatric KTx recipients received alemtuzumab without steroid maintenance. They were followed from 4.1 to 14.1 years post KTx. Results: Patient survival: One child expired with a functioning graft from post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Patient survival was 98.6%. Graft survival: Eighteen grafts were lost (16 from chronic rejection). Graft survival at 5 and 10 years was 92.3% and 61.3%, respectively. Rejection: Twenty-three (32.4%) patients were free from T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR), 16 (22.5%) had >3 episodes. Sixteen (22.5%) were treated for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Infection: Twenty-three children developed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), 5 developed cytomegalovirus (CMV), and 20 developed BK virus infection. Four (5.6%) developed PTLD. Twenty-two (31.0%) required treatment for neutropenia. Growth parameters: Mean height and weight increased by 0.56 and 0.69 SDS (standard deviation score), respectively. Body mass index increased by 5.1 kg/m2 at 10 years. Less than 40% required antihypertensive medications at all-time points. Conclusion: Alemtuzumab, without corticosteroid maintenance, offers 98.6% patient survival at 14 years with five and 10-year graft survival of 92.3% and 61.3%, respectively. TCMR and AMR requiring treatment were 67.4% and 22.5%, respectively. CMV, EBV, and BK viremia rates were 7.0%, 32.4%, and 28.2%, respectively. Thirty-one percent were treated for neutropenia; 5.6% developed PTLD. There were improvements in growth parameters and blood pressure.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health