Stress relaxation in a nickel-base superalloy at elevated temperatures with in situ neutron diffraction characterization: Application to additive manufacturing

Zhuqing Wang, Alexandru D. Stoica, Dong Ma, Allison Michelle Beese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The complex thermal histories in additive manufacturing (AM) of metals result in the presence of residual stresses in the fabricated components. The amount of residual stress accumulated during AM depends on the high temperature constitutive behavior of the material. The rapid solidification and repeated thermal cycles with each laser pass result in material contraction, and subject the surrounding, constrained material to both elevated temperatures and internal stresses, providing driving forces for stress relaxation. In this study, the stress relaxation behavior and mechanisms of conventionally processed and additively manufactured Inconel 625 (CP-IN625 and AM-IN625) at 600 °C and 700 °C were investigated via compression tests up to an engineering strain of 9% with in situ neutron diffraction characterization. The stress decayed to a plateau stress equivalent to 18% of the peak stress in CP-IN625 and 16% in AM-IN625 at 600 °C, and 39% in CP-IN625 and 44% in AM-IN625 at 700 °C. At the same temperature, the stress relaxation rate in AM-IN625 was twice as high as that in CP-IN625, and the magnitude of the plateau stress in AM-IN625 was slightly lower than that in CP-IN625, as the textured AM-IN625 had much larger grains than the texture-free CP-IN625. The stress relaxation in CP- and AM-IN625 was deduced to be controlled by dislocation glide and climb, where dislocations interact with grain boundaries, solute atoms, and secondary phases. The stress relaxation constitutive behavior reported here is a necessary input for the development of accurate thermomechanical models used to predict and minimize residual stresses and distortion in AM, as well as to predict the stress relaxation behavior of Inconel 625 in high temperature structural applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)75-83
Number of pages9
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering A
Volume714
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 31 2018

Fingerprint

3D printers
stress relaxation
heat resistant alloys
Stress relaxation
Neutron diffraction
Nickel
Superalloys
neutron diffraction
manufacturing
nickel
residual stress
Residual stresses
Temperature
temperature
Inconel (trademark)
plateaus
rapid solidification
Rapid solidification
compression tests
Dislocations (crystals)

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

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title = "Stress relaxation in a nickel-base superalloy at elevated temperatures with in situ neutron diffraction characterization: Application to additive manufacturing",
abstract = "The complex thermal histories in additive manufacturing (AM) of metals result in the presence of residual stresses in the fabricated components. The amount of residual stress accumulated during AM depends on the high temperature constitutive behavior of the material. The rapid solidification and repeated thermal cycles with each laser pass result in material contraction, and subject the surrounding, constrained material to both elevated temperatures and internal stresses, providing driving forces for stress relaxation. In this study, the stress relaxation behavior and mechanisms of conventionally processed and additively manufactured Inconel 625 (CP-IN625 and AM-IN625) at 600 °C and 700 °C were investigated via compression tests up to an engineering strain of 9{\%} with in situ neutron diffraction characterization. The stress decayed to a plateau stress equivalent to 18{\%} of the peak stress in CP-IN625 and 16{\%} in AM-IN625 at 600 °C, and 39{\%} in CP-IN625 and 44{\%} in AM-IN625 at 700 °C. At the same temperature, the stress relaxation rate in AM-IN625 was twice as high as that in CP-IN625, and the magnitude of the plateau stress in AM-IN625 was slightly lower than that in CP-IN625, as the textured AM-IN625 had much larger grains than the texture-free CP-IN625. The stress relaxation in CP- and AM-IN625 was deduced to be controlled by dislocation glide and climb, where dislocations interact with grain boundaries, solute atoms, and secondary phases. The stress relaxation constitutive behavior reported here is a necessary input for the development of accurate thermomechanical models used to predict and minimize residual stresses and distortion in AM, as well as to predict the stress relaxation behavior of Inconel 625 in high temperature structural applications.",
author = "Zhuqing Wang and Stoica, {Alexandru D.} and Dong Ma and Beese, {Allison Michelle}",
year = "2018",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Stress relaxation in a nickel-base superalloy at elevated temperatures with in situ neutron diffraction characterization

T2 - Application to additive manufacturing

AU - Wang, Zhuqing

AU - Stoica, Alexandru D.

AU - Ma, Dong

AU - Beese, Allison Michelle

PY - 2018/1/31

Y1 - 2018/1/31

N2 - The complex thermal histories in additive manufacturing (AM) of metals result in the presence of residual stresses in the fabricated components. The amount of residual stress accumulated during AM depends on the high temperature constitutive behavior of the material. The rapid solidification and repeated thermal cycles with each laser pass result in material contraction, and subject the surrounding, constrained material to both elevated temperatures and internal stresses, providing driving forces for stress relaxation. In this study, the stress relaxation behavior and mechanisms of conventionally processed and additively manufactured Inconel 625 (CP-IN625 and AM-IN625) at 600 °C and 700 °C were investigated via compression tests up to an engineering strain of 9% with in situ neutron diffraction characterization. The stress decayed to a plateau stress equivalent to 18% of the peak stress in CP-IN625 and 16% in AM-IN625 at 600 °C, and 39% in CP-IN625 and 44% in AM-IN625 at 700 °C. At the same temperature, the stress relaxation rate in AM-IN625 was twice as high as that in CP-IN625, and the magnitude of the plateau stress in AM-IN625 was slightly lower than that in CP-IN625, as the textured AM-IN625 had much larger grains than the texture-free CP-IN625. The stress relaxation in CP- and AM-IN625 was deduced to be controlled by dislocation glide and climb, where dislocations interact with grain boundaries, solute atoms, and secondary phases. The stress relaxation constitutive behavior reported here is a necessary input for the development of accurate thermomechanical models used to predict and minimize residual stresses and distortion in AM, as well as to predict the stress relaxation behavior of Inconel 625 in high temperature structural applications.

AB - The complex thermal histories in additive manufacturing (AM) of metals result in the presence of residual stresses in the fabricated components. The amount of residual stress accumulated during AM depends on the high temperature constitutive behavior of the material. The rapid solidification and repeated thermal cycles with each laser pass result in material contraction, and subject the surrounding, constrained material to both elevated temperatures and internal stresses, providing driving forces for stress relaxation. In this study, the stress relaxation behavior and mechanisms of conventionally processed and additively manufactured Inconel 625 (CP-IN625 and AM-IN625) at 600 °C and 700 °C were investigated via compression tests up to an engineering strain of 9% with in situ neutron diffraction characterization. The stress decayed to a plateau stress equivalent to 18% of the peak stress in CP-IN625 and 16% in AM-IN625 at 600 °C, and 39% in CP-IN625 and 44% in AM-IN625 at 700 °C. At the same temperature, the stress relaxation rate in AM-IN625 was twice as high as that in CP-IN625, and the magnitude of the plateau stress in AM-IN625 was slightly lower than that in CP-IN625, as the textured AM-IN625 had much larger grains than the texture-free CP-IN625. The stress relaxation in CP- and AM-IN625 was deduced to be controlled by dislocation glide and climb, where dislocations interact with grain boundaries, solute atoms, and secondary phases. The stress relaxation constitutive behavior reported here is a necessary input for the development of accurate thermomechanical models used to predict and minimize residual stresses and distortion in AM, as well as to predict the stress relaxation behavior of Inconel 625 in high temperature structural applications.

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