Structural analysis of glycosaminoglycans in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans and demonstration that tout-velu, a Drosophila gene related to EXT tumor suppressors, affects heparan sulfate in vivo

Hidenao Toyoda, Akiko Kinoshita-Toyoda, Scott Brian Selleck

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229 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We have devised a sensitive method for the isolation and structural analysis of glycosaminoglycans from two genetically tractable model organisms, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. We detected chondroitin/chondroitin sulfate- and heparan sulfate-derived disaccharides in both organisms. Chondroitinase digestion of glycosaminoglycans from adult Drosophila produced both nonsulfated and 4-O-sulfated unsaturated disaccharides, whereas only unsulfated forms were detected in C. elegans. Heparin lyases released disaccharides bearing N-, 2-O-, and 6-O-sulfated species, including mono-, di-, and trisulfated forms. We observed tissue- and stage-specific differences in both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate composition in Drosophila. We have also applied these methods toward the analysis of tout- velu, an EXT-related gene in Drosophila that controls the tissue distribution of the growth factor Hedgehog. The proteins encoded by the vertebrate tumor suppressor genes EXT1 and 2, show heparan sulfate co-polymerase activity, and it has been proposed that tout-velu affects Hedgehog activity via its role in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Analysis of total glycosaminoglycans from tout- velu mutant larvae show marked reductions in heparan sulfate but not chondroitin sulfate, consistent with its proposed function as a heparan surf ate co-polymerase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2269-2275
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume275
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 28 2000

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Heparitin Sulfate
Caenorhabditis elegans
Glycosaminoglycans
Structural analysis
Drosophila
Tumors
Demonstrations
Genes
Chondroitin Sulfates
Disaccharides
Hedgehogs
Neoplasms
Bearings (structural)
Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases
Chondroitin
Heparin Lyase
Tissue
Biosynthesis
Tissue Distribution
Fruits

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "Structural analysis of glycosaminoglycans in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans and demonstration that tout-velu, a Drosophila gene related to EXT tumor suppressors, affects heparan sulfate in vivo",
abstract = "We have devised a sensitive method for the isolation and structural analysis of glycosaminoglycans from two genetically tractable model organisms, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. We detected chondroitin/chondroitin sulfate- and heparan sulfate-derived disaccharides in both organisms. Chondroitinase digestion of glycosaminoglycans from adult Drosophila produced both nonsulfated and 4-O-sulfated unsaturated disaccharides, whereas only unsulfated forms were detected in C. elegans. Heparin lyases released disaccharides bearing N-, 2-O-, and 6-O-sulfated species, including mono-, di-, and trisulfated forms. We observed tissue- and stage-specific differences in both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate composition in Drosophila. We have also applied these methods toward the analysis of tout- velu, an EXT-related gene in Drosophila that controls the tissue distribution of the growth factor Hedgehog. The proteins encoded by the vertebrate tumor suppressor genes EXT1 and 2, show heparan sulfate co-polymerase activity, and it has been proposed that tout-velu affects Hedgehog activity via its role in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Analysis of total glycosaminoglycans from tout- velu mutant larvae show marked reductions in heparan sulfate but not chondroitin sulfate, consistent with its proposed function as a heparan surf ate co-polymerase.",
author = "Hidenao Toyoda and Akiko Kinoshita-Toyoda and Selleck, {Scott Brian}",
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T1 - Structural analysis of glycosaminoglycans in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans and demonstration that tout-velu, a Drosophila gene related to EXT tumor suppressors, affects heparan sulfate in vivo

AU - Toyoda, Hidenao

AU - Kinoshita-Toyoda, Akiko

AU - Selleck, Scott Brian

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N2 - We have devised a sensitive method for the isolation and structural analysis of glycosaminoglycans from two genetically tractable model organisms, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. We detected chondroitin/chondroitin sulfate- and heparan sulfate-derived disaccharides in both organisms. Chondroitinase digestion of glycosaminoglycans from adult Drosophila produced both nonsulfated and 4-O-sulfated unsaturated disaccharides, whereas only unsulfated forms were detected in C. elegans. Heparin lyases released disaccharides bearing N-, 2-O-, and 6-O-sulfated species, including mono-, di-, and trisulfated forms. We observed tissue- and stage-specific differences in both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate composition in Drosophila. We have also applied these methods toward the analysis of tout- velu, an EXT-related gene in Drosophila that controls the tissue distribution of the growth factor Hedgehog. The proteins encoded by the vertebrate tumor suppressor genes EXT1 and 2, show heparan sulfate co-polymerase activity, and it has been proposed that tout-velu affects Hedgehog activity via its role in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Analysis of total glycosaminoglycans from tout- velu mutant larvae show marked reductions in heparan sulfate but not chondroitin sulfate, consistent with its proposed function as a heparan surf ate co-polymerase.

AB - We have devised a sensitive method for the isolation and structural analysis of glycosaminoglycans from two genetically tractable model organisms, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. We detected chondroitin/chondroitin sulfate- and heparan sulfate-derived disaccharides in both organisms. Chondroitinase digestion of glycosaminoglycans from adult Drosophila produced both nonsulfated and 4-O-sulfated unsaturated disaccharides, whereas only unsulfated forms were detected in C. elegans. Heparin lyases released disaccharides bearing N-, 2-O-, and 6-O-sulfated species, including mono-, di-, and trisulfated forms. We observed tissue- and stage-specific differences in both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate composition in Drosophila. We have also applied these methods toward the analysis of tout- velu, an EXT-related gene in Drosophila that controls the tissue distribution of the growth factor Hedgehog. The proteins encoded by the vertebrate tumor suppressor genes EXT1 and 2, show heparan sulfate co-polymerase activity, and it has been proposed that tout-velu affects Hedgehog activity via its role in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Analysis of total glycosaminoglycans from tout- velu mutant larvae show marked reductions in heparan sulfate but not chondroitin sulfate, consistent with its proposed function as a heparan surf ate co-polymerase.

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