RNA serves many functions in biology such as splicing, temperature sensing, and innate immunity. These functions are often determined by the structure of RNA. There is thus a pressing need to understand RNA structure and how it changes during diverse biological processes both in vivo and genome-wide. Here, we present Structure-seq2, which provides nucleotide-resolution RNA structural information in vivo and genome-wide. This optimized version of our original Structure-seq method increases sensitivity by at least 4-fold and improves data quality by minimizing formation of a deleterious by-product, reducing ligation bias, and improving read coverage. We also present a variation of Structure-seq2 in which a biotinylated nucleotide is incorporated during reverse transcription, which greatly facilitates the protocol by eliminating two PAGE purification steps. We benchmark Structure-seq2 on both mRNA and rRNA structure in rice (Oryza sativa). We demonstrate that Structure-seq2 can lead to new biological insights. Our Structure-seq2 datasets uncover hidden breaks in chloroplast rRNA and identify a previously unreported N1-methyladenosine (m1A) in a nuclear-encoded Oryza sativa rRNA. Overall, Structure-seq2 is a rapid, sensitive, and unbiased method to probe RNA in vivo and genome-wide that facilitates new insights into RNA biology.
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