Sulphonated tetramethyl poly(ether ether ketone)/epoxy/sulphonated phenol novolac semi-IPN membranes for direct methanol fuel cells

T. Z. Fu, J. Liu, Z. M. Cui, J. Ni, Gang Zhang, H. B. Yu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Shi, H. Na, W. Xing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The sulphonated phenol novolac (PNBS) which was used as a curing agent of epoxy was synthesised from phenol novolac (PN) and 1, 4-butane sultone and confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR. The degree of sulphonation (DS) in PNBS was calculated by 1H NMR. The semi-IPN membranes composed of sulphonated tetramethyl poly(ether ether ketone) (STMPEEK) (the value of ion exchange capacity is 2.01 meq g-1), epoxy (TMBP) and PNBS were successfully prepared. The semi-IPN membranes showed high thermal properties which were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). With the introduction of the cross-linked TMBP/PNBS, the mechanical properties, dimensional stability, methanol resistance and oxidative stability of the membranes were improved in comparison to the pristine STMPEEK membrane. Although the proton conductivities of the semi-IPN membranes were lower than those of the pristine STMPEEK membrane, the higher selectivity defined as the ratio of the proton conductivity to methanol permeability was obtained from the STMPEEK/TMBP/PNBS-14 semi-IPN membrane. The results indicated that the semi-IPN membranes could be promising candidates for usage as proton exchange membranes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)571-578
Number of pages8
JournalFuel Cells
Volume9
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2009

Fingerprint

Polyether ether ketones
Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC)
Phenols
Membranes
Proton conductivity
Ion exchange
Methanol
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Sulfonation
Dimensional stability
Butane
Calorimeters
Curing
Protons
Thermodynamic properties
Scanning
Mechanical properties

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

Cite this

Fu, T. Z. ; Liu, J. ; Cui, Z. M. ; Ni, J. ; Zhang, Gang ; Yu, H. B. ; Zhao, C. J. ; Shi, Y. H. ; Na, H. ; Xing, W. / Sulphonated tetramethyl poly(ether ether ketone)/epoxy/sulphonated phenol novolac semi-IPN membranes for direct methanol fuel cells. In: Fuel Cells. 2009 ; Vol. 9, No. 5. pp. 571-578.
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abstract = "The sulphonated phenol novolac (PNBS) which was used as a curing agent of epoxy was synthesised from phenol novolac (PN) and 1, 4-butane sultone and confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR. The degree of sulphonation (DS) in PNBS was calculated by 1H NMR. The semi-IPN membranes composed of sulphonated tetramethyl poly(ether ether ketone) (STMPEEK) (the value of ion exchange capacity is 2.01 meq g-1), epoxy (TMBP) and PNBS were successfully prepared. The semi-IPN membranes showed high thermal properties which were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). With the introduction of the cross-linked TMBP/PNBS, the mechanical properties, dimensional stability, methanol resistance and oxidative stability of the membranes were improved in comparison to the pristine STMPEEK membrane. Although the proton conductivities of the semi-IPN membranes were lower than those of the pristine STMPEEK membrane, the higher selectivity defined as the ratio of the proton conductivity to methanol permeability was obtained from the STMPEEK/TMBP/PNBS-14 semi-IPN membrane. The results indicated that the semi-IPN membranes could be promising candidates for usage as proton exchange membranes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).",
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Sulphonated tetramethyl poly(ether ether ketone)/epoxy/sulphonated phenol novolac semi-IPN membranes for direct methanol fuel cells. / Fu, T. Z.; Liu, J.; Cui, Z. M.; Ni, J.; Zhang, Gang; Yu, H. B.; Zhao, C. J.; Shi, Y. H.; Na, H.; Xing, W.

In: Fuel Cells, Vol. 9, No. 5, 01.10.2009, p. 571-578.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sulphonated tetramethyl poly(ether ether ketone)/epoxy/sulphonated phenol novolac semi-IPN membranes for direct methanol fuel cells

AU - Fu, T. Z.

AU - Liu, J.

AU - Cui, Z. M.

AU - Ni, J.

AU - Zhang, Gang

AU - Yu, H. B.

AU - Zhao, C. J.

AU - Shi, Y. H.

AU - Na, H.

AU - Xing, W.

PY - 2009/10/1

Y1 - 2009/10/1

N2 - The sulphonated phenol novolac (PNBS) which was used as a curing agent of epoxy was synthesised from phenol novolac (PN) and 1, 4-butane sultone and confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR. The degree of sulphonation (DS) in PNBS was calculated by 1H NMR. The semi-IPN membranes composed of sulphonated tetramethyl poly(ether ether ketone) (STMPEEK) (the value of ion exchange capacity is 2.01 meq g-1), epoxy (TMBP) and PNBS were successfully prepared. The semi-IPN membranes showed high thermal properties which were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). With the introduction of the cross-linked TMBP/PNBS, the mechanical properties, dimensional stability, methanol resistance and oxidative stability of the membranes were improved in comparison to the pristine STMPEEK membrane. Although the proton conductivities of the semi-IPN membranes were lower than those of the pristine STMPEEK membrane, the higher selectivity defined as the ratio of the proton conductivity to methanol permeability was obtained from the STMPEEK/TMBP/PNBS-14 semi-IPN membrane. The results indicated that the semi-IPN membranes could be promising candidates for usage as proton exchange membranes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).

AB - The sulphonated phenol novolac (PNBS) which was used as a curing agent of epoxy was synthesised from phenol novolac (PN) and 1, 4-butane sultone and confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR. The degree of sulphonation (DS) in PNBS was calculated by 1H NMR. The semi-IPN membranes composed of sulphonated tetramethyl poly(ether ether ketone) (STMPEEK) (the value of ion exchange capacity is 2.01 meq g-1), epoxy (TMBP) and PNBS were successfully prepared. The semi-IPN membranes showed high thermal properties which were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). With the introduction of the cross-linked TMBP/PNBS, the mechanical properties, dimensional stability, methanol resistance and oxidative stability of the membranes were improved in comparison to the pristine STMPEEK membrane. Although the proton conductivities of the semi-IPN membranes were lower than those of the pristine STMPEEK membrane, the higher selectivity defined as the ratio of the proton conductivity to methanol permeability was obtained from the STMPEEK/TMBP/PNBS-14 semi-IPN membrane. The results indicated that the semi-IPN membranes could be promising candidates for usage as proton exchange membranes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).

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