Background: Seasonality in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination could have a large impact on national cancer prevention efforts. We hypothesized that uptake of HPV vaccine and other adolescent vaccines in the United States would be highest in the summer. Methods: Data came from health care provider-verified vaccination records for 70,144 adolescents (ages 13-17 years) from the 2008 to 2012 versions of the National Immunization Survey- Teen. Using the Edwards method for testing annual trends, we examined seasonal patterns in the uptake of HPV and other recommended adolescent vaccines [tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) booster and meningococcal vaccine]. HPV vaccine initiation (receipt of the first of the three-dose series) data were for female adolescents. Results: Uptake for HPV and other adolescent vaccines peaked in the summer across years and states (all P < 0.001). Uptake was five times as frequent at the peak as at the trough for HPV vaccine, and HPV vaccine initiation was highest in June, July, and August (percent of doses delivered in these months: 38.7%). The same pattern existed for Tdap booster and meningococcal vaccine. Concomitant (same-day) vaccination of HPV vaccine with other adolescent vaccines also demonstrated summer peaks each year nationally (all P < 0.001). Conclusion: Uptake of adolescent vaccines increased dramatically in summer months. These summer peaks are an important opportunity for interventions focused on concomitant vaccination. Impact: The potential cancer prevention impact of HPV vaccination programs could be increased, for example, by delivering messages about concomitant vaccination during the summer, when adolescents and their parents might be most open to them.
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