Summertime influence of Asian pollution in the free troposphere over North America

Q. Liang, L. Jaeglé, R. C. Hudman, S. Turquety, D. J. Jacob, Melody A. Avery, Edward V. Browell, G. W. Sachse, D. R. Blake, W. Brune, X. Ren, Ronald C. Cohen, Jack E. Dibb, Alan Fried, Henry E. Fuelberg, Michael J. Porter, B. G. Heikes, Greg Huey, Hanwant B. Singh, P. O. Wennberg

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Abstract

We analyze aircraft observations obtained during INTEX-A (1 July to 14 August 2004) to examine the summertime influence of Asian pollution in the free troposphere over North America. By applying correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) to the observations between 6 and 12 km, we find dominant influences from recent convection and lightning (13% of observations), Asia (7%), the lower stratosphere (7%), and boreal forest fires (2%), with the remaining 71 % assigned to background. Asian air masses are marked by high levels of CO, O3, HCN, PAN, C2H2, C6H6. methanol, and SO42-. The partitioning of NOy species in the Asian plumes is dominated by PAN (∼600 pptv), with varying NOx/HNO3 ratios in individual plumes, consistent with individual transit times of 3-9 days. Export of Asian pollution occurred in warm conveyor belts of midlatitude cyclones, deep convection, and in typhoons. Compared to Asian outflow measurements during spring, INTEX-A observations display lower levels of anthropogenic pollutants (CO, C3H8, C2H6, C6H6) due to shorter summer lifetimes; higher levels of biogenic tracers (methanol and acetone) because of a more active biosphere; and higher levels of PAN, NOx, HNO3, and O3 reflecting active photochemistry, possibly enhanced by efficient NOy export and lightning. The high DO3/ΔCO ratio (0.76 mol/mol) in Asian plumes during INTEX-A is due to strong photochemical production and, in some cases, mixing with stratospheric air along isentropic surfaces. The GEOS-Chem global model captures the timing and location of the Asian plumes. However, it significantly underestimates the magnitude of observed enhancements in CO, O3, PAN and NOx.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberD12S11
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
Volume112
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 27 2007

Fingerprint

lightning
Troposphere
polyacrylonitrile
Carbon Monoxide
troposphere
pollution
plumes
Pollution
methanol
plume
typhoons
air
Upper atmosphere
aircraft
photochemistry
forest fires
Lightning
boreal forests
acetone
Methanol

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Forestry
  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Palaeontology

Cite this

Liang, Q., Jaeglé, L., Hudman, R. C., Turquety, S., Jacob, D. J., Avery, M. A., ... Wennberg, P. O. (2007). Summertime influence of Asian pollution in the free troposphere over North America. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 112(12), [D12S11]. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007919
Liang, Q. ; Jaeglé, L. ; Hudman, R. C. ; Turquety, S. ; Jacob, D. J. ; Avery, Melody A. ; Browell, Edward V. ; Sachse, G. W. ; Blake, D. R. ; Brune, W. ; Ren, X. ; Cohen, Ronald C. ; Dibb, Jack E. ; Fried, Alan ; Fuelberg, Henry E. ; Porter, Michael J. ; Heikes, B. G. ; Huey, Greg ; Singh, Hanwant B. ; Wennberg, P. O. / Summertime influence of Asian pollution in the free troposphere over North America. In: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres. 2007 ; Vol. 112, No. 12.
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abstract = "We analyze aircraft observations obtained during INTEX-A (1 July to 14 August 2004) to examine the summertime influence of Asian pollution in the free troposphere over North America. By applying correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) to the observations between 6 and 12 km, we find dominant influences from recent convection and lightning (13{\%} of observations), Asia (7{\%}), the lower stratosphere (7{\%}), and boreal forest fires (2{\%}), with the remaining 71 {\%} assigned to background. Asian air masses are marked by high levels of CO, O3, HCN, PAN, C2H2, C6H6. methanol, and SO42-. The partitioning of NOy species in the Asian plumes is dominated by PAN (∼600 pptv), with varying NOx/HNO3 ratios in individual plumes, consistent with individual transit times of 3-9 days. Export of Asian pollution occurred in warm conveyor belts of midlatitude cyclones, deep convection, and in typhoons. Compared to Asian outflow measurements during spring, INTEX-A observations display lower levels of anthropogenic pollutants (CO, C3H8, C2H6, C6H6) due to shorter summer lifetimes; higher levels of biogenic tracers (methanol and acetone) because of a more active biosphere; and higher levels of PAN, NOx, HNO3, and O3 reflecting active photochemistry, possibly enhanced by efficient NOy export and lightning. The high DO3/ΔCO ratio (0.76 mol/mol) in Asian plumes during INTEX-A is due to strong photochemical production and, in some cases, mixing with stratospheric air along isentropic surfaces. The GEOS-Chem global model captures the timing and location of the Asian plumes. However, it significantly underestimates the magnitude of observed enhancements in CO, O3, PAN and NOx.",
author = "Q. Liang and L. Jaegl{\'e} and Hudman, {R. C.} and S. Turquety and Jacob, {D. J.} and Avery, {Melody A.} and Browell, {Edward V.} and Sachse, {G. W.} and Blake, {D. R.} and W. Brune and X. Ren and Cohen, {Ronald C.} and Dibb, {Jack E.} and Alan Fried and Fuelberg, {Henry E.} and Porter, {Michael J.} and Heikes, {B. G.} and Greg Huey and Singh, {Hanwant B.} and Wennberg, {P. O.}",
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Liang, Q, Jaeglé, L, Hudman, RC, Turquety, S, Jacob, DJ, Avery, MA, Browell, EV, Sachse, GW, Blake, DR, Brune, W, Ren, X, Cohen, RC, Dibb, JE, Fried, A, Fuelberg, HE, Porter, MJ, Heikes, BG, Huey, G, Singh, HB & Wennberg, PO 2007, 'Summertime influence of Asian pollution in the free troposphere over North America', Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, vol. 112, no. 12, D12S11. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007919

Summertime influence of Asian pollution in the free troposphere over North America. / Liang, Q.; Jaeglé, L.; Hudman, R. C.; Turquety, S.; Jacob, D. J.; Avery, Melody A.; Browell, Edward V.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W.; Ren, X.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Dibb, Jack E.; Fried, Alan; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Porter, Michael J.; Heikes, B. G.; Huey, Greg; Singh, Hanwant B.; Wennberg, P. O.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, Vol. 112, No. 12, D12S11, 27.06.2007.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Summertime influence of Asian pollution in the free troposphere over North America

AU - Liang, Q.

AU - Jaeglé, L.

AU - Hudman, R. C.

AU - Turquety, S.

AU - Jacob, D. J.

AU - Avery, Melody A.

AU - Browell, Edward V.

AU - Sachse, G. W.

AU - Blake, D. R.

AU - Brune, W.

AU - Ren, X.

AU - Cohen, Ronald C.

AU - Dibb, Jack E.

AU - Fried, Alan

AU - Fuelberg, Henry E.

AU - Porter, Michael J.

AU - Heikes, B. G.

AU - Huey, Greg

AU - Singh, Hanwant B.

AU - Wennberg, P. O.

PY - 2007/6/27

Y1 - 2007/6/27

N2 - We analyze aircraft observations obtained during INTEX-A (1 July to 14 August 2004) to examine the summertime influence of Asian pollution in the free troposphere over North America. By applying correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) to the observations between 6 and 12 km, we find dominant influences from recent convection and lightning (13% of observations), Asia (7%), the lower stratosphere (7%), and boreal forest fires (2%), with the remaining 71 % assigned to background. Asian air masses are marked by high levels of CO, O3, HCN, PAN, C2H2, C6H6. methanol, and SO42-. The partitioning of NOy species in the Asian plumes is dominated by PAN (∼600 pptv), with varying NOx/HNO3 ratios in individual plumes, consistent with individual transit times of 3-9 days. Export of Asian pollution occurred in warm conveyor belts of midlatitude cyclones, deep convection, and in typhoons. Compared to Asian outflow measurements during spring, INTEX-A observations display lower levels of anthropogenic pollutants (CO, C3H8, C2H6, C6H6) due to shorter summer lifetimes; higher levels of biogenic tracers (methanol and acetone) because of a more active biosphere; and higher levels of PAN, NOx, HNO3, and O3 reflecting active photochemistry, possibly enhanced by efficient NOy export and lightning. The high DO3/ΔCO ratio (0.76 mol/mol) in Asian plumes during INTEX-A is due to strong photochemical production and, in some cases, mixing with stratospheric air along isentropic surfaces. The GEOS-Chem global model captures the timing and location of the Asian plumes. However, it significantly underestimates the magnitude of observed enhancements in CO, O3, PAN and NOx.

AB - We analyze aircraft observations obtained during INTEX-A (1 July to 14 August 2004) to examine the summertime influence of Asian pollution in the free troposphere over North America. By applying correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) to the observations between 6 and 12 km, we find dominant influences from recent convection and lightning (13% of observations), Asia (7%), the lower stratosphere (7%), and boreal forest fires (2%), with the remaining 71 % assigned to background. Asian air masses are marked by high levels of CO, O3, HCN, PAN, C2H2, C6H6. methanol, and SO42-. The partitioning of NOy species in the Asian plumes is dominated by PAN (∼600 pptv), with varying NOx/HNO3 ratios in individual plumes, consistent with individual transit times of 3-9 days. Export of Asian pollution occurred in warm conveyor belts of midlatitude cyclones, deep convection, and in typhoons. Compared to Asian outflow measurements during spring, INTEX-A observations display lower levels of anthropogenic pollutants (CO, C3H8, C2H6, C6H6) due to shorter summer lifetimes; higher levels of biogenic tracers (methanol and acetone) because of a more active biosphere; and higher levels of PAN, NOx, HNO3, and O3 reflecting active photochemistry, possibly enhanced by efficient NOy export and lightning. The high DO3/ΔCO ratio (0.76 mol/mol) in Asian plumes during INTEX-A is due to strong photochemical production and, in some cases, mixing with stratospheric air along isentropic surfaces. The GEOS-Chem global model captures the timing and location of the Asian plumes. However, it significantly underestimates the magnitude of observed enhancements in CO, O3, PAN and NOx.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34547741145&partnerID=8YFLogxK

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U2 - 10.1029/2006JD007919

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