As the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is increased to as high over 25%, it becomes pre-eminent to study a scalable process with wide processing window to fabricate large-area uniform perovskite films with good light-trapping performance. A stable and uniform intermediate-state complex film is obtained by using tetramethylene sulfoxide (TMSO), which extends the annealing window to as long as 20 min, promotes the formation of a high-quality perovskite film with larger grains (over 400 nm) and spontaneously forms the surface texture to result in an improved fill factor and open-circuit voltage (Voc). Moreover, the superior surface texture significantly increases the long-wavelength response, leading to an improved short-circuit current density (Jsc). As a result, the maximum PCE of 21.14% is achieved based on a simple planar cell structure without any interface passivation. Moreover, a large area module with active area of 6.75 cm2 is assembled using the optimized TMSO process, showing efficiency as high as 16.57%. The study paves the way to the rational design of highly efficient PSCs for potential scaled-up production.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
- Materials Science(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)