Since the fluid flow, heat transfer, and the resulting weld properties are significantly affected by interfacial tension driven flow, the variation of interfacial tension in dilute binary solutions is studied as a function of both composition and temperature. Entropy and enthalpy of adsorption of surface active components such as oxygen, sulfur, selenium, and tellurium in Fe-O, Fe-S, Fe-Se, Cu-O, Cu-S, Cu-Se, Cu-Te, Ag-O, and Sn-Te systems were calculated from the analysis of the published data on interfacial tension of these systems. For these calculations, a formalism based on the combination of Gibbs and Langmuir adsorption isotherms was used. Interfacial tensions in Cr-O, Co-S, and Ni-S systems, where the data are scarce, were predicted by using certain approximations. The computed values were found to be in reasonable agreement with the data available in the literature. Temperature coefficients of interfacial tensions were calculated for several binary systems. It was demonstrated that in dilute solutions, the temperature coefficient of interfacial tension is strongly influenced by the heat of adsorption which, in turn, is influenced by the difference in electronegativity between the solute and solvent ions.
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