Swift observations of GRB 050904

The most distant cosmic explosion ever observed

G. Cusumano, V. Mangano, G. Chincarini, A. Panaitescu, David Nelson Burrows, V. La Parola, T. Sakamoto, S. Campana, T. Mineo, G. Tagliaferri, L. Angelini, S. D. Barthelmy, A. P. Beardmore, P. T. Boyd, L. R. Cominsky, Caryl Ann Gronwall, E. E. Fenimore, N. Gehrels, P. Giommi, M. Goad & 13 others K. Hurley, S. Immler, Jamie A. Kennea, K. O. Mason, F. Marshal, Peter Istvan Meszaros, John Andrew Nousek, J. P. Osborne, D. M. Palmer, P. W A Roming, A. Wells, N. E. White, B. Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context. Swift discovered the high redshift (z = 6.29) GRB 050904 with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and began observing with its narrow field instruments 161 s after the burst onset. This gamma-ray burst is the most distant cosmic explosion ever observed. Because of its high redshift, the X-ray Telescope (XRT) and BAT simultaneous observations provide 4 orders of magnitude of spectral coverage (0.2-150 keV; 1.4-1090 keV in the source rest frame) at a very early source-frame time (22 s). The X-ray emission was monitored by the XRT up to 10 days after the burst. Aims. We present the analysis of BAT and XRT observations of GRB 050904 and a complete description of its high energy phenomenology. Methods. We performed time resolved spectral analysis and light curve modeling. Results. GRB 050904 was a long, multi-peaked, bright GRB with strong variability during its entire evolution, The light curve observed by the XRT is characterized by the presence of a long flaring activity lasting up to 1-2 h after the burst onset in the burst rest frame, with no evidence of a smooth power-law decay following the prompt emission as seen in other GRBs. However, the BAT tail extrapolated to the XRT band joins the XRT early light curve and the overall behavior resembles that of a very long GRB prompt. The spectral energy distribution softens with time, with the photon index decreasing from -1.2 during the BAT observation to -1.9 at the end of the XRT observation. The dips of the late X-ray flares may be consistent with an underlying X-ray emission arising from the forward shock and with the properties of the optical afterglow reported by Tagliaferri et al. (2005b, A&A, 443, L1). Conclusions. We interpret the BAT and XRT data as a single continuous observation of the prompt emission from a very long GRB. The peculiarities observed in GRB 050904 could be due to its origin within one of the first star-forming regions in the Universe; very low metallicities of the progenitor at these epochs may provide an explanation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)73-80
Number of pages8
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume462
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2007

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explosions
explosion
telescopes
bursts
x rays
light curve
spectral analysis
energy
dip
power law
spectral energy distribution
afterglows
phenomenology
gamma ray bursts
flares
metallicity
spectrum analysis
universe
shock
time measurement

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Cusumano, G., Mangano, V., Chincarini, G., Panaitescu, A., Burrows, D. N., La Parola, V., ... Zhang, B. (2007). Swift observations of GRB 050904: The most distant cosmic explosion ever observed. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 462(1), 73-80. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20065173
Cusumano, G. ; Mangano, V. ; Chincarini, G. ; Panaitescu, A. ; Burrows, David Nelson ; La Parola, V. ; Sakamoto, T. ; Campana, S. ; Mineo, T. ; Tagliaferri, G. ; Angelini, L. ; Barthelmy, S. D. ; Beardmore, A. P. ; Boyd, P. T. ; Cominsky, L. R. ; Gronwall, Caryl Ann ; Fenimore, E. E. ; Gehrels, N. ; Giommi, P. ; Goad, M. ; Hurley, K. ; Immler, S. ; Kennea, Jamie A. ; Mason, K. O. ; Marshal, F. ; Meszaros, Peter Istvan ; Nousek, John Andrew ; Osborne, J. P. ; Palmer, D. M. ; Roming, P. W A ; Wells, A. ; White, N. E. ; Zhang, B. / Swift observations of GRB 050904 : The most distant cosmic explosion ever observed. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2007 ; Vol. 462, No. 1. pp. 73-80.
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title = "Swift observations of GRB 050904: The most distant cosmic explosion ever observed",
abstract = "Context. Swift discovered the high redshift (z = 6.29) GRB 050904 with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and began observing with its narrow field instruments 161 s after the burst onset. This gamma-ray burst is the most distant cosmic explosion ever observed. Because of its high redshift, the X-ray Telescope (XRT) and BAT simultaneous observations provide 4 orders of magnitude of spectral coverage (0.2-150 keV; 1.4-1090 keV in the source rest frame) at a very early source-frame time (22 s). The X-ray emission was monitored by the XRT up to 10 days after the burst. Aims. We present the analysis of BAT and XRT observations of GRB 050904 and a complete description of its high energy phenomenology. Methods. We performed time resolved spectral analysis and light curve modeling. Results. GRB 050904 was a long, multi-peaked, bright GRB with strong variability during its entire evolution, The light curve observed by the XRT is characterized by the presence of a long flaring activity lasting up to 1-2 h after the burst onset in the burst rest frame, with no evidence of a smooth power-law decay following the prompt emission as seen in other GRBs. However, the BAT tail extrapolated to the XRT band joins the XRT early light curve and the overall behavior resembles that of a very long GRB prompt. The spectral energy distribution softens with time, with the photon index decreasing from -1.2 during the BAT observation to -1.9 at the end of the XRT observation. The dips of the late X-ray flares may be consistent with an underlying X-ray emission arising from the forward shock and with the properties of the optical afterglow reported by Tagliaferri et al. (2005b, A&A, 443, L1). Conclusions. We interpret the BAT and XRT data as a single continuous observation of the prompt emission from a very long GRB. The peculiarities observed in GRB 050904 could be due to its origin within one of the first star-forming regions in the Universe; very low metallicities of the progenitor at these epochs may provide an explanation.",
author = "G. Cusumano and V. Mangano and G. Chincarini and A. Panaitescu and Burrows, {David Nelson} and {La Parola}, V. and T. Sakamoto and S. Campana and T. Mineo and G. Tagliaferri and L. Angelini and Barthelmy, {S. D.} and Beardmore, {A. P.} and Boyd, {P. T.} and Cominsky, {L. R.} and Gronwall, {Caryl Ann} and Fenimore, {E. E.} and N. Gehrels and P. Giommi and M. Goad and K. Hurley and S. Immler and Kennea, {Jamie A.} and Mason, {K. O.} and F. Marshal and Meszaros, {Peter Istvan} and Nousek, {John Andrew} and Osborne, {J. P.} and Palmer, {D. M.} and Roming, {P. W A} and A. Wells and White, {N. E.} and B. Zhang",
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Cusumano, G, Mangano, V, Chincarini, G, Panaitescu, A, Burrows, DN, La Parola, V, Sakamoto, T, Campana, S, Mineo, T, Tagliaferri, G, Angelini, L, Barthelmy, SD, Beardmore, AP, Boyd, PT, Cominsky, LR, Gronwall, CA, Fenimore, EE, Gehrels, N, Giommi, P, Goad, M, Hurley, K, Immler, S, Kennea, JA, Mason, KO, Marshal, F, Meszaros, PI, Nousek, JA, Osborne, JP, Palmer, DM, Roming, PWA, Wells, A, White, NE & Zhang, B 2007, 'Swift observations of GRB 050904: The most distant cosmic explosion ever observed', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 462, no. 1, pp. 73-80. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20065173

Swift observations of GRB 050904 : The most distant cosmic explosion ever observed. / Cusumano, G.; Mangano, V.; Chincarini, G.; Panaitescu, A.; Burrows, David Nelson; La Parola, V.; Sakamoto, T.; Campana, S.; Mineo, T.; Tagliaferri, G.; Angelini, L.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Beardmore, A. P.; Boyd, P. T.; Cominsky, L. R.; Gronwall, Caryl Ann; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Giommi, P.; Goad, M.; Hurley, K.; Immler, S.; Kennea, Jamie A.; Mason, K. O.; Marshal, F.; Meszaros, Peter Istvan; Nousek, John Andrew; Osborne, J. P.; Palmer, D. M.; Roming, P. W A; Wells, A.; White, N. E.; Zhang, B.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 462, No. 1, 01.01.2007, p. 73-80.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Swift observations of GRB 050904

T2 - The most distant cosmic explosion ever observed

AU - Cusumano, G.

AU - Mangano, V.

AU - Chincarini, G.

AU - Panaitescu, A.

AU - Burrows, David Nelson

AU - La Parola, V.

AU - Sakamoto, T.

AU - Campana, S.

AU - Mineo, T.

AU - Tagliaferri, G.

AU - Angelini, L.

AU - Barthelmy, S. D.

AU - Beardmore, A. P.

AU - Boyd, P. T.

AU - Cominsky, L. R.

AU - Gronwall, Caryl Ann

AU - Fenimore, E. E.

AU - Gehrels, N.

AU - Giommi, P.

AU - Goad, M.

AU - Hurley, K.

AU - Immler, S.

AU - Kennea, Jamie A.

AU - Mason, K. O.

AU - Marshal, F.

AU - Meszaros, Peter Istvan

AU - Nousek, John Andrew

AU - Osborne, J. P.

AU - Palmer, D. M.

AU - Roming, P. W A

AU - Wells, A.

AU - White, N. E.

AU - Zhang, B.

PY - 2007/1/1

Y1 - 2007/1/1

N2 - Context. Swift discovered the high redshift (z = 6.29) GRB 050904 with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and began observing with its narrow field instruments 161 s after the burst onset. This gamma-ray burst is the most distant cosmic explosion ever observed. Because of its high redshift, the X-ray Telescope (XRT) and BAT simultaneous observations provide 4 orders of magnitude of spectral coverage (0.2-150 keV; 1.4-1090 keV in the source rest frame) at a very early source-frame time (22 s). The X-ray emission was monitored by the XRT up to 10 days after the burst. Aims. We present the analysis of BAT and XRT observations of GRB 050904 and a complete description of its high energy phenomenology. Methods. We performed time resolved spectral analysis and light curve modeling. Results. GRB 050904 was a long, multi-peaked, bright GRB with strong variability during its entire evolution, The light curve observed by the XRT is characterized by the presence of a long flaring activity lasting up to 1-2 h after the burst onset in the burst rest frame, with no evidence of a smooth power-law decay following the prompt emission as seen in other GRBs. However, the BAT tail extrapolated to the XRT band joins the XRT early light curve and the overall behavior resembles that of a very long GRB prompt. The spectral energy distribution softens with time, with the photon index decreasing from -1.2 during the BAT observation to -1.9 at the end of the XRT observation. The dips of the late X-ray flares may be consistent with an underlying X-ray emission arising from the forward shock and with the properties of the optical afterglow reported by Tagliaferri et al. (2005b, A&A, 443, L1). Conclusions. We interpret the BAT and XRT data as a single continuous observation of the prompt emission from a very long GRB. The peculiarities observed in GRB 050904 could be due to its origin within one of the first star-forming regions in the Universe; very low metallicities of the progenitor at these epochs may provide an explanation.

AB - Context. Swift discovered the high redshift (z = 6.29) GRB 050904 with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and began observing with its narrow field instruments 161 s after the burst onset. This gamma-ray burst is the most distant cosmic explosion ever observed. Because of its high redshift, the X-ray Telescope (XRT) and BAT simultaneous observations provide 4 orders of magnitude of spectral coverage (0.2-150 keV; 1.4-1090 keV in the source rest frame) at a very early source-frame time (22 s). The X-ray emission was monitored by the XRT up to 10 days after the burst. Aims. We present the analysis of BAT and XRT observations of GRB 050904 and a complete description of its high energy phenomenology. Methods. We performed time resolved spectral analysis and light curve modeling. Results. GRB 050904 was a long, multi-peaked, bright GRB with strong variability during its entire evolution, The light curve observed by the XRT is characterized by the presence of a long flaring activity lasting up to 1-2 h after the burst onset in the burst rest frame, with no evidence of a smooth power-law decay following the prompt emission as seen in other GRBs. However, the BAT tail extrapolated to the XRT band joins the XRT early light curve and the overall behavior resembles that of a very long GRB prompt. The spectral energy distribution softens with time, with the photon index decreasing from -1.2 during the BAT observation to -1.9 at the end of the XRT observation. The dips of the late X-ray flares may be consistent with an underlying X-ray emission arising from the forward shock and with the properties of the optical afterglow reported by Tagliaferri et al. (2005b, A&A, 443, L1). Conclusions. We interpret the BAT and XRT data as a single continuous observation of the prompt emission from a very long GRB. The peculiarities observed in GRB 050904 could be due to its origin within one of the first star-forming regions in the Universe; very low metallicities of the progenitor at these epochs may provide an explanation.

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