The Thomsen Friedenreich antigen (TFag) disaccharide is a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen (TACA) found primarily on carcinoma cells and rarely expressed in normal tissue. The TFag has been shown to interact with Galectin-3 (Gal-3), one in a family of β-galactoside binding proteins. Galectins have a variety of cellular functions, and Gal-3 has been shown to be the sole galectin with anti-apoptotic activity. We have previously prepared gold nanoparticles (AuNP) coated with the TFag in various presentations as potential anti-adhesive therapeutic tools or antitumor vaccine platforms. Here we describe the synthesis of TFag-glycoamino acid conjugates attached to gold nanoparticles through a combined alkane/PEG linker, where the TFag was attached to either a serine or threonine amino acid. Particles were fully characterized by a host of biophysical techniques, and along with a control particle carrying hydroxyl-terminated linker units, were evaluated in both Gal-3 positive and negative cell lines. We show that the particles bearing the saccharides selectively inhibited tumor cell growth of the Gal-3 positive cells significantly more than the Gal-3 negative cells. In addition, the threonine-attached TF particles were more potent than the serine-attached constructs. These results support the use of AuNP as antitumor therapeutic platforms, targeted against cell lines that express specific lectins that interact with TFag.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry