Synthesis and characterization of fluorene end-labeled polystyrene with atom transfer radical polymerization

Caton C. Goodman, Amanda C. Roof, Eric S. Tillman, Bellamarie Ludwig, Dougie Chon, Michael I. Weigley

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Fluorene end-labeled polystyrene was prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization with 9-bromofluorene as the initiator. Reactions were carried out in bulk or tetrahydrofuran solutions at temperatures of 80°C or above. Analysis by gel permeation chromatography indicated that the polymers formed had low polydispersities with molecular weights consistently 2-5 times higher than calculated based on monomer-to-initiator ratios. Coupling of two fluorenyl radicals, formed by activation of the 9-bromofluorene, was found to compete with initiation, leading to the higher-than-expected molecular weight values while giving rise to a fluorene dimer. UV-vis spectrometry indicated near-quantitative fluorene labeling of the polystyrene.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2657-2665
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 15 2005


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry

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