Soon after the bulk production of carbon nanotubes was achieved, using arc discharge techniques, other methods involving gas phase processes (i.e. combustion and pyrolysis of hydrocarbons, laser irradiation of graphite) were developed. Nowadays, it is possible to generate nanotubes and fullerene-related nanostructures from layered materials such as WS2, MoS2, BN, BC2N and BC3. Recently, a new technique, involving electrolysis of graphite electrodes in molten ionic salts, has been developed which may open up new synthetic routes to nanotubes in the liquid phase. In this paper, possible growth mechanisms for such processes are reviewed and other routes to nanstructures are discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chemical Engineering(all)