Targeted identity-safety interventions cause lasting reductions in discipline citations among negatively stereotyped boys

J. Parker Goyer, Geoffrey L. Cohen, Jonathan E. Cook, Allison Master, Nancy Apfel, Wonhee Lee, Amelia G. Henderson, Stephanie L. Reeves, Jason A. Okonofua, Gregory M. Walton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

High rates of discipline citations predict adverse life outcomes, a harm disproportionately borne by Black and Latino boys. We hypothesized that these citations arise in part from negative cycles of interaction between students and teachers, which unfold in contexts of social stereotypes. Can targeted interventions to facilitate identity safety-a sense of belonging, inclusion, and growth-for students help? Experiment 1 combined social-belonging, values-affirmation, and growth-mindset interventions delivered in several class sessions in 2 middle schools with a large Latino population (N = 669). This treatment reduced citations among negatively stereotyped boys in 7th and 8th grades by 57% as compared with a randomized control condition, 95% CI [-77%, -20%]. A growth-mindset only treatment was also effective (70% reduction, 95% CI [-84%, -43%]). Experiment 2 tested the social-belonging interven-tion alone, a grade earlier, at a third school with a large Black population and more overall citations (N = 137 sixth-grade students). In 2 class sessions, students reflected on stories from previous 7th-grade students, which represented worries about belonging and relationships with teachers early in middle school as normal and as improving with time. This exercise reduced citations among Black boys through the end of high school by 65%, 95% CI [-85%, -15%], closing the disparity with White boys over 7 years by 75%. Suggesting improved interactions with teachers, longitudinal analyses found that the intervention prevented rises in citations involving subjective judgments (e.g., "insubordination") within 6th and 7th grades. It also forestalled the emergence of worries about being seen stereotypically by the end of 7th grade. Identity threat can give rise to cycles of interaction that are maladaptive for both teachers and students in school; targeted exercises can interrupt these cycles to improve disciplinary outcomes over years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-259
Number of pages31
JournalJournal of Personality and Social Psychology
Volume117
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2019

Fingerprint

Students
Safety
cause
student
school grade
teacher
Hispanic Americans
Growth
interaction
Exercise
school
experiment
Population
stereotype
inclusion
threat
Therapeutics
Values

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

Cite this

Goyer, J. Parker ; Cohen, Geoffrey L. ; Cook, Jonathan E. ; Master, Allison ; Apfel, Nancy ; Lee, Wonhee ; Henderson, Amelia G. ; Reeves, Stephanie L. ; Okonofua, Jason A. ; Walton, Gregory M. / Targeted identity-safety interventions cause lasting reductions in discipline citations among negatively stereotyped boys. In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2019 ; Vol. 117, No. 2. pp. 229-259.
@article{1e06b29929ef425b82dec75ab98ca1bd,
title = "Targeted identity-safety interventions cause lasting reductions in discipline citations among negatively stereotyped boys",
abstract = "High rates of discipline citations predict adverse life outcomes, a harm disproportionately borne by Black and Latino boys. We hypothesized that these citations arise in part from negative cycles of interaction between students and teachers, which unfold in contexts of social stereotypes. Can targeted interventions to facilitate identity safety-a sense of belonging, inclusion, and growth-for students help? Experiment 1 combined social-belonging, values-affirmation, and growth-mindset interventions delivered in several class sessions in 2 middle schools with a large Latino population (N = 669). This treatment reduced citations among negatively stereotyped boys in 7th and 8th grades by 57{\%} as compared with a randomized control condition, 95{\%} CI [-77{\%}, -20{\%}]. A growth-mindset only treatment was also effective (70{\%} reduction, 95{\%} CI [-84{\%}, -43{\%}]). Experiment 2 tested the social-belonging interven-tion alone, a grade earlier, at a third school with a large Black population and more overall citations (N = 137 sixth-grade students). In 2 class sessions, students reflected on stories from previous 7th-grade students, which represented worries about belonging and relationships with teachers early in middle school as normal and as improving with time. This exercise reduced citations among Black boys through the end of high school by 65{\%}, 95{\%} CI [-85{\%}, -15{\%}], closing the disparity with White boys over 7 years by 75{\%}. Suggesting improved interactions with teachers, longitudinal analyses found that the intervention prevented rises in citations involving subjective judgments (e.g., {"}insubordination{"}) within 6th and 7th grades. It also forestalled the emergence of worries about being seen stereotypically by the end of 7th grade. Identity threat can give rise to cycles of interaction that are maladaptive for both teachers and students in school; targeted exercises can interrupt these cycles to improve disciplinary outcomes over years.",
author = "Goyer, {J. Parker} and Cohen, {Geoffrey L.} and Cook, {Jonathan E.} and Allison Master and Nancy Apfel and Wonhee Lee and Henderson, {Amelia G.} and Reeves, {Stephanie L.} and Okonofua, {Jason A.} and Walton, {Gregory M.}",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1037/pspa0000152",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "117",
pages = "229--259",
journal = "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology",
issn = "0022-3514",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "2",

}

Goyer, JP, Cohen, GL, Cook, JE, Master, A, Apfel, N, Lee, W, Henderson, AG, Reeves, SL, Okonofua, JA & Walton, GM 2019, 'Targeted identity-safety interventions cause lasting reductions in discipline citations among negatively stereotyped boys', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 229-259. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000152

Targeted identity-safety interventions cause lasting reductions in discipline citations among negatively stereotyped boys. / Goyer, J. Parker; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Cook, Jonathan E.; Master, Allison; Apfel, Nancy; Lee, Wonhee; Henderson, Amelia G.; Reeves, Stephanie L.; Okonofua, Jason A.; Walton, Gregory M.

In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 117, No. 2, 08.2019, p. 229-259.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Targeted identity-safety interventions cause lasting reductions in discipline citations among negatively stereotyped boys

AU - Goyer, J. Parker

AU - Cohen, Geoffrey L.

AU - Cook, Jonathan E.

AU - Master, Allison

AU - Apfel, Nancy

AU - Lee, Wonhee

AU - Henderson, Amelia G.

AU - Reeves, Stephanie L.

AU - Okonofua, Jason A.

AU - Walton, Gregory M.

PY - 2019/8

Y1 - 2019/8

N2 - High rates of discipline citations predict adverse life outcomes, a harm disproportionately borne by Black and Latino boys. We hypothesized that these citations arise in part from negative cycles of interaction between students and teachers, which unfold in contexts of social stereotypes. Can targeted interventions to facilitate identity safety-a sense of belonging, inclusion, and growth-for students help? Experiment 1 combined social-belonging, values-affirmation, and growth-mindset interventions delivered in several class sessions in 2 middle schools with a large Latino population (N = 669). This treatment reduced citations among negatively stereotyped boys in 7th and 8th grades by 57% as compared with a randomized control condition, 95% CI [-77%, -20%]. A growth-mindset only treatment was also effective (70% reduction, 95% CI [-84%, -43%]). Experiment 2 tested the social-belonging interven-tion alone, a grade earlier, at a third school with a large Black population and more overall citations (N = 137 sixth-grade students). In 2 class sessions, students reflected on stories from previous 7th-grade students, which represented worries about belonging and relationships with teachers early in middle school as normal and as improving with time. This exercise reduced citations among Black boys through the end of high school by 65%, 95% CI [-85%, -15%], closing the disparity with White boys over 7 years by 75%. Suggesting improved interactions with teachers, longitudinal analyses found that the intervention prevented rises in citations involving subjective judgments (e.g., "insubordination") within 6th and 7th grades. It also forestalled the emergence of worries about being seen stereotypically by the end of 7th grade. Identity threat can give rise to cycles of interaction that are maladaptive for both teachers and students in school; targeted exercises can interrupt these cycles to improve disciplinary outcomes over years.

AB - High rates of discipline citations predict adverse life outcomes, a harm disproportionately borne by Black and Latino boys. We hypothesized that these citations arise in part from negative cycles of interaction between students and teachers, which unfold in contexts of social stereotypes. Can targeted interventions to facilitate identity safety-a sense of belonging, inclusion, and growth-for students help? Experiment 1 combined social-belonging, values-affirmation, and growth-mindset interventions delivered in several class sessions in 2 middle schools with a large Latino population (N = 669). This treatment reduced citations among negatively stereotyped boys in 7th and 8th grades by 57% as compared with a randomized control condition, 95% CI [-77%, -20%]. A growth-mindset only treatment was also effective (70% reduction, 95% CI [-84%, -43%]). Experiment 2 tested the social-belonging interven-tion alone, a grade earlier, at a third school with a large Black population and more overall citations (N = 137 sixth-grade students). In 2 class sessions, students reflected on stories from previous 7th-grade students, which represented worries about belonging and relationships with teachers early in middle school as normal and as improving with time. This exercise reduced citations among Black boys through the end of high school by 65%, 95% CI [-85%, -15%], closing the disparity with White boys over 7 years by 75%. Suggesting improved interactions with teachers, longitudinal analyses found that the intervention prevented rises in citations involving subjective judgments (e.g., "insubordination") within 6th and 7th grades. It also forestalled the emergence of worries about being seen stereotypically by the end of 7th grade. Identity threat can give rise to cycles of interaction that are maladaptive for both teachers and students in school; targeted exercises can interrupt these cycles to improve disciplinary outcomes over years.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85063482816&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85063482816&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/pspa0000152

DO - 10.1037/pspa0000152

M3 - Article

C2 - 30920278

AN - SCOPUS:85063482816

VL - 117

SP - 229

EP - 259

JO - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

JF - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

SN - 0022-3514

IS - 2

ER -