Recent advances in techniques to measure markers of exposure to environmental toxicants in humans are changing the ways in which environmental scientists, epidemiologists, and policymakers characterize and interpret such exposure. In this article we review some major technical and scientific developments in exposure marker methodology for estimating internal dose, with special reference to studies conducted at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We consider important characteristics of laboratory methods, advances in laboratory technology, analytical standards, and quality assurance of laboratory measurements; comparisons with indirect methods for estimating exposures, such as exposure indices and questionnaires; human pharmacokinetic data; sampling problems; surveillance of human exposures to toxicants; and interpretation of measurements. With a view to increasing the reliability of exposure assessment, we make recommendations for obtaining more data on human exposure to toxicants.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical