Technical and scientific developments in exposure marker methodology

Eric J. Sampson, Larry L. Needham, James L. Pirkle, W. Harry Hannon, Dayton T. Miller, Donald G. Patterson, John T. Bernert, David L. Ashley, Robert H. Hill, Elaine W. Gunter, Daniel C. Paschal, Francis W. Spierto, Michael J. Rich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Recent advances in techniques to measure markers of exposure to environmental toxicants in humans are changing the ways in which environmental scientists, epidemiologists, and policymakers characterize and interpret such exposure. In this article we review some major technical and scientific developments in exposure marker methodology for estimating internal dose, with special reference to studies conducted at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We consider important characteristics of laboratory methods, advances in laboratory technology, analytical standards, and quality assurance of laboratory measurements; comparisons with indirect methods for estimating exposures, such as exposure indices and questionnaires; human pharmacokinetic data; sampling problems; surveillance of human exposures to toxicants; and interpretation of measurements. With a view to increasing the reliability of exposure assessment, we make recommendations for obtaining more data on human exposure to toxicants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1376-1384
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Chemistry
Volume40
Issue number7 II
StatePublished - Jul 11 1994

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Disease control
Pharmacokinetics
Quality assurance
Environmental Exposure
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Sampling
Technology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Epidemiologists

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical

Cite this

Sampson, E. J., Needham, L. L., Pirkle, J. L., Hannon, W. H., Miller, D. T., Patterson, D. G., ... Rich, M. J. (1994). Technical and scientific developments in exposure marker methodology. Clinical Chemistry, 40(7 II), 1376-1384.
Sampson, Eric J. ; Needham, Larry L. ; Pirkle, James L. ; Hannon, W. Harry ; Miller, Dayton T. ; Patterson, Donald G. ; Bernert, John T. ; Ashley, David L. ; Hill, Robert H. ; Gunter, Elaine W. ; Paschal, Daniel C. ; Spierto, Francis W. ; Rich, Michael J. / Technical and scientific developments in exposure marker methodology. In: Clinical Chemistry. 1994 ; Vol. 40, No. 7 II. pp. 1376-1384.
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Sampson, EJ, Needham, LL, Pirkle, JL, Hannon, WH, Miller, DT, Patterson, DG, Bernert, JT, Ashley, DL, Hill, RH, Gunter, EW, Paschal, DC, Spierto, FW & Rich, MJ 1994, 'Technical and scientific developments in exposure marker methodology', Clinical Chemistry, vol. 40, no. 7 II, pp. 1376-1384.

Technical and scientific developments in exposure marker methodology. / Sampson, Eric J.; Needham, Larry L.; Pirkle, James L.; Hannon, W. Harry; Miller, Dayton T.; Patterson, Donald G.; Bernert, John T.; Ashley, David L.; Hill, Robert H.; Gunter, Elaine W.; Paschal, Daniel C.; Spierto, Francis W.; Rich, Michael J.

In: Clinical Chemistry, Vol. 40, No. 7 II, 11.07.1994, p. 1376-1384.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Sampson, Eric J.

AU - Needham, Larry L.

AU - Pirkle, James L.

AU - Hannon, W. Harry

AU - Miller, Dayton T.

AU - Patterson, Donald G.

AU - Bernert, John T.

AU - Ashley, David L.

AU - Hill, Robert H.

AU - Gunter, Elaine W.

AU - Paschal, Daniel C.

AU - Spierto, Francis W.

AU - Rich, Michael J.

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Sampson EJ, Needham LL, Pirkle JL, Hannon WH, Miller DT, Patterson DG et al. Technical and scientific developments in exposure marker methodology. Clinical Chemistry. 1994 Jul 11;40(7 II):1376-1384.