Temperament is defined as biologically rooted, early appearing dispositions that shape long-term patterns of socioemotional development. Much of the research has focused on broad dimensions of emotional reactivity, including positive and negative emotionality, and regulation, marked by effortful control. The article outlines five main research traditions that have approached temperament as both a continuous and a categorical construct. For each model, descriptions are provided for the dimensions/category proposed and their defining features, the underlying constitutional bases, and perspectives on temperamental continuity and discontinuity. Next, theoretical and measurement issues are discussed. Finally, we demonstrate how temperament may predict developmental psychopathology through temperament-by-temperament and temperament-by-environment moderations of early risk.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition|
|Number of pages||8|
|State||Published - Mar 26 2015|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Social Sciences(all)