Building supercapacitors that can provide high energy density over a wide range of temperatures, where traditional energy storage devices fail to operate, requires tailoring of electrolyte and/or electrode material. Here, we show that record gravimetric capacitances of 164 and 182 F g−1 can be attained at −100 and 60 °C, respectively, nearly equivalent to the room-temperature value of 177 F g−1, when activated carbon-based electrodes with predominantly slit-shaped micropores and a low freezing-point electrolyte are used. Experimental data and density functional theory calculations suggest that electrode material characteristics, such as pore size and shape, matched with the effective size of partially solvated ions of the electrolyte, are the key factors in achieving such performance. This study provides evidence for the effective design of robust supercapacitors with sustained performance at both low and high temperatures.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Materials Science(all)
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology