Tempering method for chocolate containing milk-fat fractions

S. Yella Reddy, N. Full, P. S. Dimick, Gregory Ray Ziegler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Anhydrous milk fat (AMF) was fractionated by a two-stage dry fractionation process to produce three fractions -high- (HMF), middle-(MMF), and low-melting (LMF). The effect of replacing 12.2-40% by weight of cocoa butter with these fractions on the tempering profile of milk chocolate was studied. Degree of temper was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry, and expressed as the ratio of enthalpies of melting for higher-stability polymor0phs to those of lesser stability. The degree of temper was dependent on the crystallization time and temperature, and the type and quantity of milk-fat fraction in the formulation. Chocolates containing AMF or its fractions in concentrations of up to 20 wt% (total fat basis) were tempered after a conventional thermocycling tempering process (50°C/30 min, 27.7°C/4 min, 31°C/2 min) to obtain products with good contraction and mold release properties. For those milk chocolate formulations that did not temper by the conventional method and resulted in poor contraction and mold release, a new tempering protocol was developed. Lower crystallization temperatures and/or longer holding times were required at concentrations of AMF, MMF, or LMF above 20%. Chocolate containing HMF required slightly higher crystallization temperatures because of high viscosity. Chocolates containing up to 35% HMF and up to 40% of the total weight of fat in the chocolate of AMF, MMF, and LMF were successfully tempered by adjusting crystallization time and temperature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)723-727
Number of pages5
JournalJAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Volume73
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1996

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anhydrous milk fat
tempering
chocolate
Tempering
crystallization
Oils and fats
milk fat
Milk
Fats
milk chocolate
Crystallization
melting
temperature
Temperature
cocoa butter
Freezing
lipids
enthalpy
differential scanning calorimetry
methodology

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)

Cite this

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title = "Tempering method for chocolate containing milk-fat fractions",
abstract = "Anhydrous milk fat (AMF) was fractionated by a two-stage dry fractionation process to produce three fractions -high- (HMF), middle-(MMF), and low-melting (LMF). The effect of replacing 12.2-40{\%} by weight of cocoa butter with these fractions on the tempering profile of milk chocolate was studied. Degree of temper was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry, and expressed as the ratio of enthalpies of melting for higher-stability polymor0phs to those of lesser stability. The degree of temper was dependent on the crystallization time and temperature, and the type and quantity of milk-fat fraction in the formulation. Chocolates containing AMF or its fractions in concentrations of up to 20 wt{\%} (total fat basis) were tempered after a conventional thermocycling tempering process (50°C/30 min, 27.7°C/4 min, 31°C/2 min) to obtain products with good contraction and mold release properties. For those milk chocolate formulations that did not temper by the conventional method and resulted in poor contraction and mold release, a new tempering protocol was developed. Lower crystallization temperatures and/or longer holding times were required at concentrations of AMF, MMF, or LMF above 20{\%}. Chocolate containing HMF required slightly higher crystallization temperatures because of high viscosity. Chocolates containing up to 35{\%} HMF and up to 40{\%} of the total weight of fat in the chocolate of AMF, MMF, and LMF were successfully tempered by adjusting crystallization time and temperature.",
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year = "1996",
language = "English (US)",
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Tempering method for chocolate containing milk-fat fractions. / Yella Reddy, S.; Full, N.; Dimick, P. S.; Ziegler, Gregory Ray.

In: JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, Vol. 73, No. 6, 1996, p. 723-727.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Yella Reddy, S.

AU - Full, N.

AU - Dimick, P. S.

AU - Ziegler, Gregory Ray

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