Fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum, induces liver damage and pulmonary edema in swine. We examined the temporal and dose-response features of FB 1 toxicosis in male weanling crossbred pigs fed nutritionally balanced diets, containing corn screenings naturally contaminated with fumonisins, for 14 days. Total fumonisins (FB 1 and FB 2 ) in diets 1 through 6 were assayed at 175, 101, 39, 23, 5, and <1 ppm (below detectable concentrations), respectively. Clinical signs, serum biochemical alterations, and morphologic changes were evaluated. Pigs were weighed, and bled for hematologic and clinical chemistry evaluation on days 5 and 14. They were euthanized on day 14, or earlier if respiratory distress was observed. Respiratory distress developed in 3/5 pigs fed diet 1 between days 4 and 6 due to severe pulmonary edema and pleural effusion. Histologic evidence of hepatic injury was present in all pigs fed diets 1 and 2, 3/5 on diet 3, and 1/5 on diet 4. Serum bilirubin and cholesterol concentrations, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and arginase (ARG) activities were elevated in pigs fed diets 1 and 2. Based on liver histopathology, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for fumonisin toxicity in swine was <23 ppm total fumosins for the 14-day period. Based on regression analyses of the clinical chemistry profiles at 14 days, the NOAEL was <12 ppm, with ALP being the most sensitive parameter. In conclusion, pulmonary edema occurred only at the highest fumonisin concentration (175 ppm), while liver damage occurred at much lower concentrations with a NOAEL of <12 ppm.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- veterinary (miscalleneous)