The purpose of this study was to test a model of the leisure constraint negotiation process proposed by Hubbard and Mannell. A multidimensional measure of physically active leisure was used to extend their findings to a sample of middle-aged and older adults in a metropolitan park setting. Volunteers and visitors (aged 50-87 years) of a Midwestern metropolitan park agency completed a self-administered questionnaire. Results of a two-step structural equation modeling procedure suggested a constraint-negotiation dual channel model. In this model, the negative influence of constraints on participation was almost entirely offset by the positive effect of negotiation strategies. The effect of motivation on participation was fully mediated by negotiation. The implications of these findings for studying constraint negotiation and active leisure in mid- to late-life are discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
- Sociology and Political Science
- Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management