TeV gamma-ray observations of the perseus and abell 2029 galaxy clusters

J. S. Perkins, H. M. Badran, G. Blaylock, S. M. Bradbury, P. Cogan, Y. C.K. Chow, W. Cui, M. K. Daniel, Abraham David Falcone, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, P. Fortin, L. F. Fortson, G. H. Gillanders, K. J. Gutierrez, J. Grube, J. Hall, D. Hanna, J. Holder, D. HoranS. B. Hughes, T. B. Humensky, G. E. Kenny, M. Kertzman, D. B. Kieda, J. Kildea, K. Kosack, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, G. Maier, P. Moriarty, R. A. Ong, M. Pohl, K. Ragan, P. F. Rebillot, G. H. Sembroski, D. Steele, S. P. Swordy, L. Valcarcel, V. V. Vassiliev, S. P. Wakely, T. C. Weekes, D. A. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Galaxy clusters might be sources of TeV gamma rays emitted by high-energy protons and electrons accelerated by large-scale structure formation shocks, galactic winds, or active galactic nuclei. Furthermore, gamma rays may be produced in dark matter particle annihilation processes at the cluster cores. We report on observations of the galaxy clusters Perseus and A2029 using the 10 m Whipple Cerenkov telescope during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 observing seasons. We apply a two-dimensional analysis technique to scrutinize the clusters for TeV emission. In this paper we first determine flux upper limits on TeV gamma-ray emission from point sources within the clusters. Second, we derive upper limits on the extended cluster emission. We subsequently compare the flux upper limits with EGRET upper limits at 100 MeV and theoretical models. Assuming that the gamma-ray surface brightness profile mimics that of the thermal X-ray emission and that the spectrum of cluster cosmic rays extends all the way from thermal energies to multi-TeV energies with a differential spectral index of -2.1, our results imply that the cosmic-ray proton energy density is less than 7.9% of the thermal energy density for the Perseus Cluster.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)148-154
Number of pages7
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume644
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 10 2006

Fingerprint

gamma rays
galaxies
energy
cosmic ray
proton energy
thermal energy
cosmic rays
flux density
point source
galactic winds
dimensional analysis
electron
active galactic nuclei
point sources
dark matter
brightness
shock
telescopes
electron energy
profiles

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Perkins, J. S., Badran, H. M., Blaylock, G., Bradbury, S. M., Cogan, P., Chow, Y. C. K., ... Williams, D. A. (2006). TeV gamma-ray observations of the perseus and abell 2029 galaxy clusters. Astrophysical Journal, 644(1), 148-154. https://doi.org/10.1086/503321
Perkins, J. S. ; Badran, H. M. ; Blaylock, G. ; Bradbury, S. M. ; Cogan, P. ; Chow, Y. C.K. ; Cui, W. ; Daniel, M. K. ; Falcone, Abraham David ; Fegan, S. J. ; Finley, J. P. ; Fortin, P. ; Fortson, L. F. ; Gillanders, G. H. ; Gutierrez, K. J. ; Grube, J. ; Hall, J. ; Hanna, D. ; Holder, J. ; Horan, D. ; Hughes, S. B. ; Humensky, T. B. ; Kenny, G. E. ; Kertzman, M. ; Kieda, D. B. ; Kildea, J. ; Kosack, K. ; Krawczynski, H. ; Krennrich, F. ; Lang, M. J. ; LeBohec, S. ; Maier, G. ; Moriarty, P. ; Ong, R. A. ; Pohl, M. ; Ragan, K. ; Rebillot, P. F. ; Sembroski, G. H. ; Steele, D. ; Swordy, S. P. ; Valcarcel, L. ; Vassiliev, V. V. ; Wakely, S. P. ; Weekes, T. C. ; Williams, D. A. / TeV gamma-ray observations of the perseus and abell 2029 galaxy clusters. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2006 ; Vol. 644, No. 1. pp. 148-154.
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abstract = "Galaxy clusters might be sources of TeV gamma rays emitted by high-energy protons and electrons accelerated by large-scale structure formation shocks, galactic winds, or active galactic nuclei. Furthermore, gamma rays may be produced in dark matter particle annihilation processes at the cluster cores. We report on observations of the galaxy clusters Perseus and A2029 using the 10 m Whipple Cerenkov telescope during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 observing seasons. We apply a two-dimensional analysis technique to scrutinize the clusters for TeV emission. In this paper we first determine flux upper limits on TeV gamma-ray emission from point sources within the clusters. Second, we derive upper limits on the extended cluster emission. We subsequently compare the flux upper limits with EGRET upper limits at 100 MeV and theoretical models. Assuming that the gamma-ray surface brightness profile mimics that of the thermal X-ray emission and that the spectrum of cluster cosmic rays extends all the way from thermal energies to multi-TeV energies with a differential spectral index of -2.1, our results imply that the cosmic-ray proton energy density is less than 7.9{\%} of the thermal energy density for the Perseus Cluster.",
author = "Perkins, {J. S.} and Badran, {H. M.} and G. Blaylock and Bradbury, {S. M.} and P. Cogan and Chow, {Y. C.K.} and W. Cui and Daniel, {M. K.} and Falcone, {Abraham David} and Fegan, {S. J.} and Finley, {J. P.} and P. Fortin and Fortson, {L. F.} and Gillanders, {G. H.} and Gutierrez, {K. J.} and J. Grube and J. Hall and D. Hanna and J. Holder and D. Horan and Hughes, {S. B.} and Humensky, {T. B.} and Kenny, {G. E.} and M. Kertzman and Kieda, {D. B.} and J. Kildea and K. Kosack and H. Krawczynski and F. Krennrich and Lang, {M. J.} and S. LeBohec and G. Maier and P. Moriarty and Ong, {R. A.} and M. Pohl and K. Ragan and Rebillot, {P. F.} and Sembroski, {G. H.} and D. Steele and Swordy, {S. P.} and L. Valcarcel and Vassiliev, {V. V.} and Wakely, {S. P.} and Weekes, {T. C.} and Williams, {D. A.}",
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Perkins, JS, Badran, HM, Blaylock, G, Bradbury, SM, Cogan, P, Chow, YCK, Cui, W, Daniel, MK, Falcone, AD, Fegan, SJ, Finley, JP, Fortin, P, Fortson, LF, Gillanders, GH, Gutierrez, KJ, Grube, J, Hall, J, Hanna, D, Holder, J, Horan, D, Hughes, SB, Humensky, TB, Kenny, GE, Kertzman, M, Kieda, DB, Kildea, J, Kosack, K, Krawczynski, H, Krennrich, F, Lang, MJ, LeBohec, S, Maier, G, Moriarty, P, Ong, RA, Pohl, M, Ragan, K, Rebillot, PF, Sembroski, GH, Steele, D, Swordy, SP, Valcarcel, L, Vassiliev, VV, Wakely, SP, Weekes, TC & Williams, DA 2006, 'TeV gamma-ray observations of the perseus and abell 2029 galaxy clusters', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 644, no. 1, pp. 148-154. https://doi.org/10.1086/503321

TeV gamma-ray observations of the perseus and abell 2029 galaxy clusters. / Perkins, J. S.; Badran, H. M.; Blaylock, G.; Bradbury, S. M.; Cogan, P.; Chow, Y. C.K.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M. K.; Falcone, Abraham David; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L. F.; Gillanders, G. H.; Gutierrez, K. J.; Grube, J.; Hall, J.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Hughes, S. B.; Humensky, T. B.; Kenny, G. E.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D. B.; Kildea, J.; Kosack, K.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Pohl, M.; Ragan, K.; Rebillot, P. F.; Sembroski, G. H.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Valcarcel, L.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; Williams, D. A.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 644, No. 1, 10.06.2006, p. 148-154.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - TeV gamma-ray observations of the perseus and abell 2029 galaxy clusters

AU - Perkins, J. S.

AU - Badran, H. M.

AU - Blaylock, G.

AU - Bradbury, S. M.

AU - Cogan, P.

AU - Chow, Y. C.K.

AU - Cui, W.

AU - Daniel, M. K.

AU - Falcone, Abraham David

AU - Fegan, S. J.

AU - Finley, J. P.

AU - Fortin, P.

AU - Fortson, L. F.

AU - Gillanders, G. H.

AU - Gutierrez, K. J.

AU - Grube, J.

AU - Hall, J.

AU - Hanna, D.

AU - Holder, J.

AU - Horan, D.

AU - Hughes, S. B.

AU - Humensky, T. B.

AU - Kenny, G. E.

AU - Kertzman, M.

AU - Kieda, D. B.

AU - Kildea, J.

AU - Kosack, K.

AU - Krawczynski, H.

AU - Krennrich, F.

AU - Lang, M. J.

AU - LeBohec, S.

AU - Maier, G.

AU - Moriarty, P.

AU - Ong, R. A.

AU - Pohl, M.

AU - Ragan, K.

AU - Rebillot, P. F.

AU - Sembroski, G. H.

AU - Steele, D.

AU - Swordy, S. P.

AU - Valcarcel, L.

AU - Vassiliev, V. V.

AU - Wakely, S. P.

AU - Weekes, T. C.

AU - Williams, D. A.

PY - 2006/6/10

Y1 - 2006/6/10

N2 - Galaxy clusters might be sources of TeV gamma rays emitted by high-energy protons and electrons accelerated by large-scale structure formation shocks, galactic winds, or active galactic nuclei. Furthermore, gamma rays may be produced in dark matter particle annihilation processes at the cluster cores. We report on observations of the galaxy clusters Perseus and A2029 using the 10 m Whipple Cerenkov telescope during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 observing seasons. We apply a two-dimensional analysis technique to scrutinize the clusters for TeV emission. In this paper we first determine flux upper limits on TeV gamma-ray emission from point sources within the clusters. Second, we derive upper limits on the extended cluster emission. We subsequently compare the flux upper limits with EGRET upper limits at 100 MeV and theoretical models. Assuming that the gamma-ray surface brightness profile mimics that of the thermal X-ray emission and that the spectrum of cluster cosmic rays extends all the way from thermal energies to multi-TeV energies with a differential spectral index of -2.1, our results imply that the cosmic-ray proton energy density is less than 7.9% of the thermal energy density for the Perseus Cluster.

AB - Galaxy clusters might be sources of TeV gamma rays emitted by high-energy protons and electrons accelerated by large-scale structure formation shocks, galactic winds, or active galactic nuclei. Furthermore, gamma rays may be produced in dark matter particle annihilation processes at the cluster cores. We report on observations of the galaxy clusters Perseus and A2029 using the 10 m Whipple Cerenkov telescope during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 observing seasons. We apply a two-dimensional analysis technique to scrutinize the clusters for TeV emission. In this paper we first determine flux upper limits on TeV gamma-ray emission from point sources within the clusters. Second, we derive upper limits on the extended cluster emission. We subsequently compare the flux upper limits with EGRET upper limits at 100 MeV and theoretical models. Assuming that the gamma-ray surface brightness profile mimics that of the thermal X-ray emission and that the spectrum of cluster cosmic rays extends all the way from thermal energies to multi-TeV energies with a differential spectral index of -2.1, our results imply that the cosmic-ray proton energy density is less than 7.9% of the thermal energy density for the Perseus Cluster.

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Perkins JS, Badran HM, Blaylock G, Bradbury SM, Cogan P, Chow YCK et al. TeV gamma-ray observations of the perseus and abell 2029 galaxy clusters. Astrophysical Journal. 2006 Jun 10;644(1):148-154. https://doi.org/10.1086/503321