The 1707 Mw8.7 Hoei earthquake triggered the largest historical eruption of Mt. Fuji

Christine Chesley, Peter Christopher Lafemina, Christine Puskas, Daisuke Kobayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Studies in magma-tectonics point to a spatiotemporal correlation between earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Here, we examine the correlation between two great Japanese earthquakes, the 1703 Mw 8.2 Genroku and 1707 M w 8.7 Hoei, and Mt. Fuji's explosive (VEI 5) Hoei eruption, 49 days after the 1707 earthquake. We model the static stress changes and dilatational strain imparted on the Mt. Fuji magmatic system due to each earthquake to determine if these mechanisms enhanced the potential for eruption. Our results show that both earthquakes clamped the dike from 8 km to the surface and compressed magma chambers at 8 km and 20 km depths. The 1707 earthquake decreased the normal stress on the dike at 20 km, the proposed depth of a basaltic magma chamber, by 1.06 bars (0.106 MPa). We hypothesize that the stress change and strain generated by the 1707 earthquake triggered the eruption of Mt. Fuji by permitting opening of the dike and ascent of basaltic magma from 20 km into andesitic and dacitic magma chambers located at 8 km depth. The injection of basaltic magma into the more evolved magmatic system induced magma mixing and a Plinian eruption ensued.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberL24309
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Volume39
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 28 2012

Fingerprint

volcanic eruptions
magma
earthquakes
volcanic eruption
earthquake
rock intrusions
magma chamber
dike
chambers
stress change
plinian eruption
ascent
explosive
tectonics
injection

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)
  • Geophysics

Cite this

@article{ad4f176a71e54573beb41a4c0e8bde84,
title = "The 1707 Mw8.7 Hoei earthquake triggered the largest historical eruption of Mt. Fuji",
abstract = "Studies in magma-tectonics point to a spatiotemporal correlation between earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Here, we examine the correlation between two great Japanese earthquakes, the 1703 Mw 8.2 Genroku and 1707 M w 8.7 Hoei, and Mt. Fuji's explosive (VEI 5) Hoei eruption, 49 days after the 1707 earthquake. We model the static stress changes and dilatational strain imparted on the Mt. Fuji magmatic system due to each earthquake to determine if these mechanisms enhanced the potential for eruption. Our results show that both earthquakes clamped the dike from 8 km to the surface and compressed magma chambers at 8 km and 20 km depths. The 1707 earthquake decreased the normal stress on the dike at 20 km, the proposed depth of a basaltic magma chamber, by 1.06 bars (0.106 MPa). We hypothesize that the stress change and strain generated by the 1707 earthquake triggered the eruption of Mt. Fuji by permitting opening of the dike and ascent of basaltic magma from 20 km into andesitic and dacitic magma chambers located at 8 km depth. The injection of basaltic magma into the more evolved magmatic system induced magma mixing and a Plinian eruption ensued.",
author = "Christine Chesley and Lafemina, {Peter Christopher} and Christine Puskas and Daisuke Kobayashi",
year = "2012",
month = "12",
day = "28",
doi = "10.1029/2012GL053868",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "39",
journal = "Geophysical Research Letters",
issn = "0094-8276",
publisher = "American Geophysical Union",
number = "24",

}

The 1707 Mw8.7 Hoei earthquake triggered the largest historical eruption of Mt. Fuji. / Chesley, Christine; Lafemina, Peter Christopher; Puskas, Christine; Kobayashi, Daisuke.

In: Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 39, No. 24, L24309, 28.12.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The 1707 Mw8.7 Hoei earthquake triggered the largest historical eruption of Mt. Fuji

AU - Chesley, Christine

AU - Lafemina, Peter Christopher

AU - Puskas, Christine

AU - Kobayashi, Daisuke

PY - 2012/12/28

Y1 - 2012/12/28

N2 - Studies in magma-tectonics point to a spatiotemporal correlation between earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Here, we examine the correlation between two great Japanese earthquakes, the 1703 Mw 8.2 Genroku and 1707 M w 8.7 Hoei, and Mt. Fuji's explosive (VEI 5) Hoei eruption, 49 days after the 1707 earthquake. We model the static stress changes and dilatational strain imparted on the Mt. Fuji magmatic system due to each earthquake to determine if these mechanisms enhanced the potential for eruption. Our results show that both earthquakes clamped the dike from 8 km to the surface and compressed magma chambers at 8 km and 20 km depths. The 1707 earthquake decreased the normal stress on the dike at 20 km, the proposed depth of a basaltic magma chamber, by 1.06 bars (0.106 MPa). We hypothesize that the stress change and strain generated by the 1707 earthquake triggered the eruption of Mt. Fuji by permitting opening of the dike and ascent of basaltic magma from 20 km into andesitic and dacitic magma chambers located at 8 km depth. The injection of basaltic magma into the more evolved magmatic system induced magma mixing and a Plinian eruption ensued.

AB - Studies in magma-tectonics point to a spatiotemporal correlation between earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Here, we examine the correlation between two great Japanese earthquakes, the 1703 Mw 8.2 Genroku and 1707 M w 8.7 Hoei, and Mt. Fuji's explosive (VEI 5) Hoei eruption, 49 days after the 1707 earthquake. We model the static stress changes and dilatational strain imparted on the Mt. Fuji magmatic system due to each earthquake to determine if these mechanisms enhanced the potential for eruption. Our results show that both earthquakes clamped the dike from 8 km to the surface and compressed magma chambers at 8 km and 20 km depths. The 1707 earthquake decreased the normal stress on the dike at 20 km, the proposed depth of a basaltic magma chamber, by 1.06 bars (0.106 MPa). We hypothesize that the stress change and strain generated by the 1707 earthquake triggered the eruption of Mt. Fuji by permitting opening of the dike and ascent of basaltic magma from 20 km into andesitic and dacitic magma chambers located at 8 km depth. The injection of basaltic magma into the more evolved magmatic system induced magma mixing and a Plinian eruption ensued.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84871596284&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84871596284&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1029/2012GL053868

DO - 10.1029/2012GL053868

M3 - Article

VL - 39

JO - Geophysical Research Letters

JF - Geophysical Research Letters

SN - 0094-8276

IS - 24

M1 - L24309

ER -