The 2005 outburst of GRO J1655-40

Spectral evolution of the rise, as observed by Swift

C. Brocksopp, K. E. McGowan, H. Krimm, O. Godet, P. Roming, K. O. Mason, N. Gehrels, M. Still, K. Page, A. Moretti, C. R. Shrader, S. Campana, Jamie A. Kennea

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present Swift observations of the black hole X-ray transient, GRO J1655-40, during the recent outburst. With its multiwavelength capabilities and flexible scheduling, Swift is extremely well suited for monitoring the spectral evolution of such an event. GRO J1655-40 was observed on 20 occasions and data were obtained by all instruments for the majority of epochs. X-ray spectroscopy revealed spectral shapes consistent with the 'canonical' low/hard, high/soft and very high states at various epochs. The soft X-ray source (0.3-10 keV) rose from quiescence and entered the low/hard state, when an iron emission line was detected. The soft X-ray source then softened and decayed, before beginning a slow rebrightening and then spending ∼3 weeks in the very high state. The hard X-rays (14-150 keV) behaved similarly but their peaks preceded those of the soft X-rays by up to a few days; in addition, the average hard X-ray flux remained approximately constant during the slow soft X-ray rebrightening, increasing suddenly as the source entered the very high state. These observations indicate (and confirm previous suggestions) that the low/hard state is key to improving our understanding of the outburst trigger and mechanism. The optical/ultraviolet light curve behaved very differently from that of the X-rays; this might suggest that the soft X-ray light curve is actually a composite of the two known spectral components, one gradually increasing with the optical/ultraviolet emission (accretion disc) and the other following the behaviour of the hard X-rays (jet and/or corona).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1203-1214
Number of pages12
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume365
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2006

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outburst
x rays
light curve
time measurement
ultraviolet emission
scheduling
X-ray spectroscopy
corona
accretion disks
ultraviolet radiation
coronas
suggestion
light emission
accretion
actuators
iron
composite materials
monitoring

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Brocksopp, C. ; McGowan, K. E. ; Krimm, H. ; Godet, O. ; Roming, P. ; Mason, K. O. ; Gehrels, N. ; Still, M. ; Page, K. ; Moretti, A. ; Shrader, C. R. ; Campana, S. ; Kennea, Jamie A. / The 2005 outburst of GRO J1655-40 : Spectral evolution of the rise, as observed by Swift. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2006 ; Vol. 365, No. 4. pp. 1203-1214.
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abstract = "We present Swift observations of the black hole X-ray transient, GRO J1655-40, during the recent outburst. With its multiwavelength capabilities and flexible scheduling, Swift is extremely well suited for monitoring the spectral evolution of such an event. GRO J1655-40 was observed on 20 occasions and data were obtained by all instruments for the majority of epochs. X-ray spectroscopy revealed spectral shapes consistent with the 'canonical' low/hard, high/soft and very high states at various epochs. The soft X-ray source (0.3-10 keV) rose from quiescence and entered the low/hard state, when an iron emission line was detected. The soft X-ray source then softened and decayed, before beginning a slow rebrightening and then spending ∼3 weeks in the very high state. The hard X-rays (14-150 keV) behaved similarly but their peaks preceded those of the soft X-rays by up to a few days; in addition, the average hard X-ray flux remained approximately constant during the slow soft X-ray rebrightening, increasing suddenly as the source entered the very high state. These observations indicate (and confirm previous suggestions) that the low/hard state is key to improving our understanding of the outburst trigger and mechanism. The optical/ultraviolet light curve behaved very differently from that of the X-rays; this might suggest that the soft X-ray light curve is actually a composite of the two known spectral components, one gradually increasing with the optical/ultraviolet emission (accretion disc) and the other following the behaviour of the hard X-rays (jet and/or corona).",
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Brocksopp, C, McGowan, KE, Krimm, H, Godet, O, Roming, P, Mason, KO, Gehrels, N, Still, M, Page, K, Moretti, A, Shrader, CR, Campana, S & Kennea, JA 2006, 'The 2005 outburst of GRO J1655-40: Spectral evolution of the rise, as observed by Swift', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 365, no. 4, pp. 1203-1214. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09791.x

The 2005 outburst of GRO J1655-40 : Spectral evolution of the rise, as observed by Swift. / Brocksopp, C.; McGowan, K. E.; Krimm, H.; Godet, O.; Roming, P.; Mason, K. O.; Gehrels, N.; Still, M.; Page, K.; Moretti, A.; Shrader, C. R.; Campana, S.; Kennea, Jamie A.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 365, No. 4, 01.02.2006, p. 1203-1214.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - The 2005 outburst of GRO J1655-40

T2 - Spectral evolution of the rise, as observed by Swift

AU - Brocksopp, C.

AU - McGowan, K. E.

AU - Krimm, H.

AU - Godet, O.

AU - Roming, P.

AU - Mason, K. O.

AU - Gehrels, N.

AU - Still, M.

AU - Page, K.

AU - Moretti, A.

AU - Shrader, C. R.

AU - Campana, S.

AU - Kennea, Jamie A.

PY - 2006/2/1

Y1 - 2006/2/1

N2 - We present Swift observations of the black hole X-ray transient, GRO J1655-40, during the recent outburst. With its multiwavelength capabilities and flexible scheduling, Swift is extremely well suited for monitoring the spectral evolution of such an event. GRO J1655-40 was observed on 20 occasions and data were obtained by all instruments for the majority of epochs. X-ray spectroscopy revealed spectral shapes consistent with the 'canonical' low/hard, high/soft and very high states at various epochs. The soft X-ray source (0.3-10 keV) rose from quiescence and entered the low/hard state, when an iron emission line was detected. The soft X-ray source then softened and decayed, before beginning a slow rebrightening and then spending ∼3 weeks in the very high state. The hard X-rays (14-150 keV) behaved similarly but their peaks preceded those of the soft X-rays by up to a few days; in addition, the average hard X-ray flux remained approximately constant during the slow soft X-ray rebrightening, increasing suddenly as the source entered the very high state. These observations indicate (and confirm previous suggestions) that the low/hard state is key to improving our understanding of the outburst trigger and mechanism. The optical/ultraviolet light curve behaved very differently from that of the X-rays; this might suggest that the soft X-ray light curve is actually a composite of the two known spectral components, one gradually increasing with the optical/ultraviolet emission (accretion disc) and the other following the behaviour of the hard X-rays (jet and/or corona).

AB - We present Swift observations of the black hole X-ray transient, GRO J1655-40, during the recent outburst. With its multiwavelength capabilities and flexible scheduling, Swift is extremely well suited for monitoring the spectral evolution of such an event. GRO J1655-40 was observed on 20 occasions and data were obtained by all instruments for the majority of epochs. X-ray spectroscopy revealed spectral shapes consistent with the 'canonical' low/hard, high/soft and very high states at various epochs. The soft X-ray source (0.3-10 keV) rose from quiescence and entered the low/hard state, when an iron emission line was detected. The soft X-ray source then softened and decayed, before beginning a slow rebrightening and then spending ∼3 weeks in the very high state. The hard X-rays (14-150 keV) behaved similarly but their peaks preceded those of the soft X-rays by up to a few days; in addition, the average hard X-ray flux remained approximately constant during the slow soft X-ray rebrightening, increasing suddenly as the source entered the very high state. These observations indicate (and confirm previous suggestions) that the low/hard state is key to improving our understanding of the outburst trigger and mechanism. The optical/ultraviolet light curve behaved very differently from that of the X-rays; this might suggest that the soft X-ray light curve is actually a composite of the two known spectral components, one gradually increasing with the optical/ultraviolet emission (accretion disc) and the other following the behaviour of the hard X-rays (jet and/or corona).

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