The 2010 very high energy γ-ray flare and 10 years of multi-wavelength observations of M 87

A. Abramowski, F. Acero, F. Aharonian, A. G. Akhperjanian, G. Anton, A. Balzer, A. Barnacka, U. Barres De Almeida, Y. Becherini, J. Becker, B. Behera, K. Bernlöhr, E. Birsin, J. Biteau, A. Bochow, C. Boisson, J. Bolmont, P. Bordas, J. Brucker, F. BrunP. Brun, T. Bulik, I. Büsching, S. Carrigan, S. Casanova, M. Cerruti, P. M. Chadwick, A. Charbonnier, R. C.G. Chaves, A. Cheesebrough, A. C. Clapson, G. Coignet, G. Cologna, J. Conrad, M. Dalton, M. K. Daniel, I. D. Davids, B. Degrange, C. Deil, H. J. Dickinson, A. Djannati-Ata, W. Domainko, L. O. Drury, G. Dubus, K. Dutson, J. Dyks, M. Dyrda, K. Egberts, P. Eger, P. Espigat, L. Fallon, C. Farnier, S. Fegan, F. Feinstein, M. V. Fernandes, A. Fiasson, G. Fontaine, A. Förster, M. Füling, Y. A. Gallant, H. Gast, L. Gérard, D. Gerbig, B. Giebels, J. F. Glicenstein, B. Glück, P. Goret, D. Göring, S. Häffner, J. D. Hague, D. Hampf, M. Hauser, S. Heinz, G. Heinzelmann, G. Henri, G. Hermann, J. A. Hinton, A. Hoffmann, W. Hofmann, P. Hofverberg, M. Holler, D. Horns, A. Jacholkowska, O. C. De Jager, C. Jahn, M. Jamrozy, I. Jung, M. A. Kastendieck, K. Katarzyński, U. Katz, S. Kaufmann, D. Keogh, D. Khangulyan, B. Khélifi, D. Klochkov, W. Kluźniak, T. Kneiske, Nu Komin, K. Kosack, R. Kossakowski, H. Laffon, G. Lamanna, D. Lennarz, T. Lohse, A. Lopatin, C. C. Lu, V. Marandon, A. Marcowith, J. Masbou, D. Maurin, N. Maxted, M. Mayer, T. J.L. McComb, M. C. Medina, J. Méhault, R. Moderski, E. Moulin, C. L. Naumann, M. Naumann-Godo, M. De Naurois, D. Nedbal, D. Nekrassov, N. Nguyen, B. Nicholas, J. Niemiec, S. J. Nolan, S. Ohm, E. De Õa Wilhelmi, B. Opitz, M. Ostrowski, I. Oya, M. Panter, M. Paz Arribas, G. Pedaletti, G. Pelletier, P. O. Petrucci, S. Pita, G. Pühlhofer, M. Punch, A. Quirrenbach, M. Raue, S. M. Rayner, A. Reimer, O. Reimer, M. Renaud, R. De Los Reyes, F. Rieger, J. Ripken, L. Rob, S. Rosier-Lees, G. Rowell, B. Rudak, C. B. Rulten, J. Ruppel, V. Sahakian, D. A. Sanchez, A. Santangelo, R. Schlickeiser, F. M. Schöck, A. Schulz, U. Schwanke, S. Schwarzburg, S. Schwemmer, F. Sheidaei, J. L. Skilton, H. Sol, G. Spengler, Stawarz, R. Steenkamp, C. Stegmann, F. Stinzing, K. Stycz, I. Sushch, A. Szostek, J. P. Tavernet, R. Terrier, M. Tluczykont, K. Valerius, C. Van Eldik, G. Vasileiadis, C. Venter, J. P. Vialle, A. Viana, P. Vincent, H. J. Völk, F. Volpe, S. Vorobiov, M. Vorster, S. J. Wagner, M. Ward, R. White, A. Wierzcholska, M. Zacharias, A. Zajczyk, A. A. Zdziarski, A. Zech, H. S. Zechlin, J. Aleksić, L. A. Antonelli, P. Antoranz, M. Backes, J. A. Barrio, D. Bastieri, J. Becerra Gonzlez, W. Bednarek, A. Berdyugin, K. Berger, E. Bernardini, A. Biland, O. Blanch, R. K. Bock, A. Boller, G. Bonnoli, D. Borla Tridon, I. Braun, T. Bretz, A. Cãellas, E. Carmona, A. Carosi, P. Colin, E. Colombo, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, L. Cossio, S. Covino, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, E. De Cea Del Pozo, B. De Lotto, C. Delgado Mendez, A. Diago Ortega, M. Doert, A. Domínguez, D. Dominis Prester, D. Dorner, M. Doro, D. Elsaesser, D. Ferenc, M. V. Fonseca, L. Font, C. Fruck, R. J. García López, M. Garczarczyk, D. Garrido, G. Giavitto, N. Godinović, D. Hadasch, D. Häfner, A. Herrero, D. Hildebrand, D. Höhne-Mönch, J. Hose, D. Hrupec, B. Huber, T. Jogler, S. Klepser, T. Krähenbühl, J. Krause, A. La Barbera, D. Lelas, E. Leonardo, E. Lindfors, S. Lombardi, M. López, E. Lorenz, M. Makariev, G. Maneva, N. Mankuzhiyil, K. Mannheim, L. Maraschi, M. Mariotti, M. Martínez, D. Mazin, M. Meucci, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, H. Miyamoto, J. Moldón, A. Moralejo, P. Munar, D. Nieto, K. Nilsson, R. Orito, I. Oya, D. Paneque, R. Paoletti, S. Pardo, J. M. Paredes, S. Partini, M. Pasanen, F. Pauss, M. A. Perez-Torres, M. Persic, L. Peruzzo, M. Pilia, J. Pochon, F. Prada, P. G. Prada Moroni, E. Prandini, I. Puljak, I. Reichardt, R. Reinthal, W. Rhode, M. Ribó, J. Rico, S. Rügamer, A. Saggion, K. Saito, T. Y. Saito, M. Salvati, K. Satalecka, V. Scalzotto, V. Scapin, C. Schultz, T. Schweizer, M. Shayduk, S. N. Shore, A. Sillanpää, J. Sitarek, D. Sobczynska, F. Spanier, S. Spiro, A. Stamerra, B. Steinke, J. Storz, N. Strah, T. Surić, L. Takalo, H. Takami, F. Tavecchio, P. Temnikov, T. Terzić, D. Tescaro, M. Teshima, M. Thom, O. Tibolla, D. F. Torres, A. Treves, H. Vankov, P. Vogler, R. M. Wagner, Q. Weitzel, V. Zabalza, F. Zandanel, R. Zanin, T. Arlen, T. Aune, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, A. Bouvier, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, A. Cesarini, L. Ciupik, M. P. Connolly, W. Cui, R. Dickherber, C. Duke, M. Errando, Abraham David Falcone, J. P. Finley, G. Finnegan, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, N. Galante, D. Gall, S. Godambe, S. Griffin, J. Grube, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, J. Holder, H. Huan, C. M. Hui, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, Y. Khassen, D. Kieda, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. Lebohec, G. Maier, S. McArthur, A. McCann, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, P. D. Nũez, R. A. Ong, M. Orr, A. N. Otte, N. Park, J. S. Perkins, A. Pichel, M. Pohl, H. Prokoph, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H. J. Rose, J. Ruppel, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, G. D. Şentürk, I. Telezhinsky, G. Teić, M. Theiling, S. Thibadeau, A. Varlotta, V. V. Vassiliev, M. Vivier, S. P. Wakely, T. C. Weekes, D. A. Williams, B. Zitzer, U. Barres De Almeida, M. Cara, C. Casadio, C. C. Cheung, W. McConville, F. Davies, A. Doi, G. Giovannini, M. Giroletti, K. Hada, P. Hardee, D. E. Harris, W. Junor, M. Kino, N. P. Lee, C. Ly, J. Madrid, F. Massaro, C. G. Mundell, H. Nagai, E. S. Perlman, I. A. Steele, R. C. Walker, D. L. Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

98 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The giant radio galaxy M87 with its proximity (16Mpc), famous jet, and very massive black hole ((3 - 6) × 109M·) provides a unique opportunity to investigate the origin of very high energy (VHE; E > 100GeV) γ-ray emission generated in relativistic outflows and the surroundings of supermassive black holes. M87 has been established as a VHE γ-ray emitter since 2006. The VHE γ-ray emission displays strong variability on timescales as short as a day. In this paper, results from a joint VHE monitoring campaign on M87 by the MAGIC and VERITAS instruments in 2010 are reported. During the campaign, a flare at VHE was detected triggering further observations at VHE (H.E.S.S.), X-rays (Chandra), and radio (43GHz Very Long Baseline Array, VLBA). The excellent sampling of the VHE γ-ray light curve enables one to derive a precise temporal characterization of the flare: the single, isolated flare is well described by a two-sided exponential function with significantly different flux rise and decay times of τrise d = (1.69 ± 0.30) days and τdecay d = (0.611 0.080) days, respectively. While the overall variability pattern of the 2010 flare appears somewhat different from that of previous VHE flares in 2005 and 2008, they share very similar timescales (day), peak fluxes (Φ>0.35 TeV ≃ (1-3) × 10-11 photonscm-2 s-1), and VHE spectra. VLBA radio observations of 43GHz of the inner jet regions indicate no enhanced flux in 2010 in contrast to observations in 2008, where an increase of the radio flux of the innermost core regions coincided with a VHE flare. On the other hand, Chandra X-ray observations taken 3 days after the peak of the VHE γ-ray emission reveal an enhanced flux from the core (flux increased by factor 2; variability timescale <2 days). The long-term (2001-2010) multi-wavelength (MWL) light curve of M87, spanning from radio to VHE and including data from Hubble Space Telescope, Liverpool Telescope, Very Large Array, and European VLBI Network, is used to further investigate the origin of the VHE γ-ray emission. No unique, common MWL signature of the three VHE flares has been identified. In the outer kiloparsec jet region, in particular in HST-1, no enhanced MWL activity was detected in 2008 and 2010, disfavoring it as the origin of the VHE flares during these years. Shortly after two of the three flares (2008 and 2010), the X-ray core was observed to be at a higher flux level than its characteristic range (determined from more than 60 monitoring observations: 2002-2009). In 2005, the strong flux dominance of HST-1 could have suppressed the detection of such a feature. Published models for VHE γ-ray emission from M87 are reviewed in the light of the new data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number151
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume746
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 20 2012

Fingerprint

flares
rays
radio
wavelength
wavelengths
energy
timescale
Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)
very long baseline interferometry
monitoring
light curve
outflow
x rays
very long base interferometry
Very Large Array (VLA)
radio observation
radio galaxies
exponential functions
decay
sampling

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Abramowski, A., Acero, F., Aharonian, F., Akhperjanian, A. G., Anton, G., Balzer, A., ... Wood, D. L. (2012). The 2010 very high energy γ-ray flare and 10 years of multi-wavelength observations of M 87. Astrophysical Journal, 746(2), [151]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/746/2/151
Abramowski, A. ; Acero, F. ; Aharonian, F. ; Akhperjanian, A. G. ; Anton, G. ; Balzer, A. ; Barnacka, A. ; Barres De Almeida, U. ; Becherini, Y. ; Becker, J. ; Behera, B. ; Bernlöhr, K. ; Birsin, E. ; Biteau, J. ; Bochow, A. ; Boisson, C. ; Bolmont, J. ; Bordas, P. ; Brucker, J. ; Brun, F. ; Brun, P. ; Bulik, T. ; Büsching, I. ; Carrigan, S. ; Casanova, S. ; Cerruti, M. ; Chadwick, P. M. ; Charbonnier, A. ; Chaves, R. C.G. ; Cheesebrough, A. ; Clapson, A. C. ; Coignet, G. ; Cologna, G. ; Conrad, J. ; Dalton, M. ; Daniel, M. K. ; Davids, I. D. ; Degrange, B. ; Deil, C. ; Dickinson, H. J. ; Djannati-Ata, A. ; Domainko, W. ; Drury, L. O. ; Dubus, G. ; Dutson, K. ; Dyks, J. ; Dyrda, M. ; Egberts, K. ; Eger, P. ; Espigat, P. ; Fallon, L. ; Farnier, C. ; Fegan, S. ; Feinstein, F. ; Fernandes, M. V. ; Fiasson, A. ; Fontaine, G. ; Förster, A. ; Füling, M. ; Gallant, Y. A. ; Gast, H. ; Gérard, L. ; Gerbig, D. ; Giebels, B. ; Glicenstein, J. F. ; Glück, B. ; Goret, P. ; Göring, D. ; Häffner, S. ; Hague, J. D. ; Hampf, D. ; Hauser, M. ; Heinz, S. ; Heinzelmann, G. ; Henri, G. ; Hermann, G. ; Hinton, J. A. ; Hoffmann, A. ; Hofmann, W. ; Hofverberg, P. ; Holler, M. ; Horns, D. ; Jacholkowska, A. ; De Jager, O. C. ; Jahn, C. ; Jamrozy, M. ; Jung, I. ; Kastendieck, M. A. ; Katarzyński, K. ; Katz, U. ; Kaufmann, S. ; Keogh, D. ; Khangulyan, D. ; Khélifi, B. ; Klochkov, D. ; Kluźniak, W. ; Kneiske, T. ; Komin, Nu ; Kosack, K. ; Kossakowski, R. ; Laffon, H. ; Lamanna, G. ; Lennarz, D. ; Lohse, T. ; Lopatin, A. ; Lu, C. C. ; Marandon, V. ; Marcowith, A. ; Masbou, J. ; Maurin, D. ; Maxted, N. ; Mayer, M. ; McComb, T. J.L. ; Medina, M. C. ; Méhault, J. ; Moderski, R. ; Moulin, E. ; Naumann, C. L. ; Naumann-Godo, M. ; De Naurois, M. ; Nedbal, D. ; Nekrassov, D. ; Nguyen, N. ; Nicholas, B. ; Niemiec, J. ; Nolan, S. J. ; Ohm, S. ; De Õa Wilhelmi, E. ; Opitz, B. ; Ostrowski, M. ; Oya, I. ; Panter, M. ; Paz Arribas, M. ; Pedaletti, G. ; Pelletier, G. ; Petrucci, P. O. ; Pita, S. ; Pühlhofer, G. ; Punch, M. ; Quirrenbach, A. ; Raue, M. ; Rayner, S. M. ; Reimer, A. ; Reimer, O. ; Renaud, M. ; De Los Reyes, R. ; Rieger, F. ; Ripken, J. ; Rob, L. ; Rosier-Lees, S. ; Rowell, G. ; Rudak, B. ; Rulten, C. B. ; Ruppel, J. ; Sahakian, V. ; Sanchez, D. A. ; Santangelo, A. ; Schlickeiser, R. ; Schöck, F. M. ; Schulz, A. ; Schwanke, U. ; Schwarzburg, S. ; Schwemmer, S. ; Sheidaei, F. ; Skilton, J. L. ; Sol, H. ; Spengler, G. ; Stawarz ; Steenkamp, R. ; Stegmann, C. ; Stinzing, F. ; Stycz, K. ; Sushch, I. ; Szostek, A. ; Tavernet, J. P. ; Terrier, R. ; Tluczykont, M. ; Valerius, K. ; Van Eldik, C. ; Vasileiadis, G. ; Venter, C. ; Vialle, J. P. ; Viana, A. ; Vincent, P. ; Völk, H. J. ; Volpe, F. ; Vorobiov, S. ; Vorster, M. ; Wagner, S. J. ; Ward, M. ; White, R. ; Wierzcholska, A. ; Zacharias, M. ; Zajczyk, A. ; Zdziarski, A. A. ; Zech, A. ; Zechlin, H. S. ; Aleksić, J. ; Antonelli, L. A. ; Antoranz, P. ; Backes, M. ; Barrio, J. A. ; Bastieri, D. ; Becerra Gonzlez, J. ; Bednarek, W. ; Berdyugin, A. ; Berger, K. ; Bernardini, E. ; Biland, A. ; Blanch, O. ; Bock, R. K. ; Boller, A. ; Bonnoli, G. ; Borla Tridon, D. ; Braun, I. ; Bretz, T. ; Cãellas, A. ; Carmona, E. ; Carosi, A. ; Colin, P. ; Colombo, E. ; Contreras, J. L. ; Cortina, J. ; Cossio, L. ; Covino, S. ; Dazzi, F. ; De Angelis, A. ; De Cea Del Pozo, E. ; De Lotto, B. ; Delgado Mendez, C. ; Diago Ortega, A. ; Doert, M. ; Domínguez, A. ; Dominis Prester, D. ; Dorner, D. ; Doro, M. ; Elsaesser, D. ; Ferenc, D. ; Fonseca, M. V. ; Font, L. ; Fruck, C. ; García López, R. J. ; Garczarczyk, M. ; Garrido, D. ; Giavitto, G. ; Godinović, N. ; Hadasch, D. ; Häfner, D. ; Herrero, A. ; Hildebrand, D. ; Höhne-Mönch, D. ; Hose, J. ; Hrupec, D. ; Huber, B. ; Jogler, T. ; Klepser, S. ; Krähenbühl, T. ; Krause, J. ; La Barbera, A. ; Lelas, D. ; Leonardo, E. ; Lindfors, E. ; Lombardi, S. ; López, M. ; Lorenz, E. ; Makariev, M. ; Maneva, G. ; Mankuzhiyil, N. ; Mannheim, K. ; Maraschi, L. ; Mariotti, M. ; Martínez, M. ; Mazin, D. ; Meucci, M. ; Miranda, J. M. ; Mirzoyan, R. ; Miyamoto, H. ; Moldón, J. ; Moralejo, A. ; Munar, P. ; Nieto, D. ; Nilsson, K. ; Orito, R. ; Oya, I. ; Paneque, D. ; Paoletti, R. ; Pardo, S. ; Paredes, J. M. ; Partini, S. ; Pasanen, M. ; Pauss, F. ; Perez-Torres, M. A. ; Persic, M. ; Peruzzo, L. ; Pilia, M. ; Pochon, J. ; Prada, F. ; Prada Moroni, P. G. ; Prandini, E. ; Puljak, I. ; Reichardt, I. ; Reinthal, R. ; Rhode, W. ; Ribó, M. ; Rico, J. ; Rügamer, S. ; Saggion, A. ; Saito, K. ; Saito, T. Y. ; Salvati, M. ; Satalecka, K. ; Scalzotto, V. ; Scapin, V. ; Schultz, C. ; Schweizer, T. ; Shayduk, M. ; Shore, S. N. ; Sillanpää, A. ; Sitarek, J. ; Sobczynska, D. ; Spanier, F. ; Spiro, S. ; Stamerra, A. ; Steinke, B. ; Storz, J. ; Strah, N. ; Surić, T. ; Takalo, L. ; Takami, H. ; Tavecchio, F. ; Temnikov, P. ; Terzić, T. ; Tescaro, D. ; Teshima, M. ; Thom, M. ; Tibolla, O. ; Torres, D. F. ; Treves, A. ; Vankov, H. ; Vogler, P. ; Wagner, R. M. ; Weitzel, Q. ; Zabalza, V. ; Zandanel, F. ; Zanin, R. ; Arlen, T. ; Aune, T. ; Beilicke, M. ; Benbow, W. ; Bouvier, A. ; Bradbury, S. M. ; Buckley, J. H. ; Bugaev, V. ; Byrum, K. ; Cannon, A. ; Cesarini, A. ; Ciupik, L. ; Connolly, M. P. ; Cui, W. ; Dickherber, R. ; Duke, C. ; Errando, M. ; Falcone, Abraham David ; Finley, J. P. ; Finnegan, G. ; Fortson, L. ; Furniss, A. ; Galante, N. ; Gall, D. ; Godambe, S. ; Griffin, S. ; Grube, J. ; Gyuk, G. ; Hanna, D. ; Holder, J. ; Huan, H. ; Hui, C. M. ; Kaaret, P. ; Karlsson, N. ; Kertzman, M. ; Khassen, Y. ; Kieda, D. ; Krawczynski, H. ; Krennrich, F. ; Lang, M. J. ; Lebohec, S. ; Maier, G. ; McArthur, S. ; McCann, A. ; Moriarty, P. ; Mukherjee, R. ; Nũez, P. D. ; Ong, R. A. ; Orr, M. ; Otte, A. N. ; Park, N. ; Perkins, J. S. ; Pichel, A. ; Pohl, M. ; Prokoph, H. ; Ragan, K. ; Reyes, L. C. ; Reynolds, P. T. ; Roache, E. ; Rose, H. J. ; Ruppel, J. ; Schroedter, M. ; Sembroski, G. H. ; Şentürk, G. D. ; Telezhinsky, I. ; Teić, G. ; Theiling, M. ; Thibadeau, S. ; Varlotta, A. ; Vassiliev, V. V. ; Vivier, M. ; Wakely, S. P. ; Weekes, T. C. ; Williams, D. A. ; Zitzer, B. ; Barres De Almeida, U. ; Cara, M. ; Casadio, C. ; Cheung, C. C. ; McConville, W. ; Davies, F. ; Doi, A. ; Giovannini, G. ; Giroletti, M. ; Hada, K. ; Hardee, P. ; Harris, D. E. ; Junor, W. ; Kino, M. ; Lee, N. P. ; Ly, C. ; Madrid, J. ; Massaro, F. ; Mundell, C. G. ; Nagai, H. ; Perlman, E. S. ; Steele, I. A. ; Walker, R. C. ; Wood, D. L. / The 2010 very high energy γ-ray flare and 10 years of multi-wavelength observations of M 87. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2012 ; Vol. 746, No. 2.
@article{536e4af4c8854fdaad4d0814cecbc94c,
title = "The 2010 very high energy γ-ray flare and 10 years of multi-wavelength observations of M 87",
abstract = "The giant radio galaxy M87 with its proximity (16Mpc), famous jet, and very massive black hole ((3 - 6) × 109M·) provides a unique opportunity to investigate the origin of very high energy (VHE; E > 100GeV) γ-ray emission generated in relativistic outflows and the surroundings of supermassive black holes. M87 has been established as a VHE γ-ray emitter since 2006. The VHE γ-ray emission displays strong variability on timescales as short as a day. In this paper, results from a joint VHE monitoring campaign on M87 by the MAGIC and VERITAS instruments in 2010 are reported. During the campaign, a flare at VHE was detected triggering further observations at VHE (H.E.S.S.), X-rays (Chandra), and radio (43GHz Very Long Baseline Array, VLBA). The excellent sampling of the VHE γ-ray light curve enables one to derive a precise temporal characterization of the flare: the single, isolated flare is well described by a two-sided exponential function with significantly different flux rise and decay times of τrise d = (1.69 ± 0.30) days and τdecay d = (0.611 0.080) days, respectively. While the overall variability pattern of the 2010 flare appears somewhat different from that of previous VHE flares in 2005 and 2008, they share very similar timescales (day), peak fluxes (Φ>0.35 TeV ≃ (1-3) × 10-11 photonscm-2 s-1), and VHE spectra. VLBA radio observations of 43GHz of the inner jet regions indicate no enhanced flux in 2010 in contrast to observations in 2008, where an increase of the radio flux of the innermost core regions coincided with a VHE flare. On the other hand, Chandra X-ray observations taken 3 days after the peak of the VHE γ-ray emission reveal an enhanced flux from the core (flux increased by factor 2; variability timescale <2 days). The long-term (2001-2010) multi-wavelength (MWL) light curve of M87, spanning from radio to VHE and including data from Hubble Space Telescope, Liverpool Telescope, Very Large Array, and European VLBI Network, is used to further investigate the origin of the VHE γ-ray emission. No unique, common MWL signature of the three VHE flares has been identified. In the outer kiloparsec jet region, in particular in HST-1, no enhanced MWL activity was detected in 2008 and 2010, disfavoring it as the origin of the VHE flares during these years. Shortly after two of the three flares (2008 and 2010), the X-ray core was observed to be at a higher flux level than its characteristic range (determined from more than 60 monitoring observations: 2002-2009). In 2005, the strong flux dominance of HST-1 could have suppressed the detection of such a feature. Published models for VHE γ-ray emission from M87 are reviewed in the light of the new data.",
author = "A. Abramowski and F. Acero and F. Aharonian and Akhperjanian, {A. G.} and G. Anton and A. Balzer and A. Barnacka and {Barres De Almeida}, U. and Y. Becherini and J. Becker and B. Behera and K. Bernl{\"o}hr and E. Birsin and J. Biteau and A. Bochow and C. Boisson and J. Bolmont and P. Bordas and J. Brucker and F. Brun and P. Brun and T. Bulik and I. B{\"u}sching and S. Carrigan and S. Casanova and M. Cerruti and Chadwick, {P. M.} and A. Charbonnier and Chaves, {R. C.G.} and A. Cheesebrough and Clapson, {A. C.} and G. Coignet and G. Cologna and J. Conrad and M. Dalton and Daniel, {M. K.} and Davids, {I. D.} and B. Degrange and C. Deil and Dickinson, {H. J.} and A. Djannati-Ata and W. Domainko and Drury, {L. O.} and G. Dubus and K. Dutson and J. Dyks and M. Dyrda and K. Egberts and P. Eger and P. Espigat and L. Fallon and C. Farnier and S. Fegan and F. Feinstein and Fernandes, {M. V.} and A. Fiasson and G. Fontaine and A. F{\"o}rster and M. F{\"u}ling and Gallant, {Y. A.} and H. Gast and L. G{\'e}rard and D. Gerbig and B. Giebels and Glicenstein, {J. F.} and B. Gl{\"u}ck and P. Goret and D. G{\"o}ring and S. H{\"a}ffner and Hague, {J. D.} and D. Hampf and M. Hauser and S. Heinz and G. Heinzelmann and G. Henri and G. Hermann and Hinton, {J. A.} and A. Hoffmann and W. Hofmann and P. Hofverberg and M. Holler and D. Horns and A. Jacholkowska and {De Jager}, {O. C.} and C. Jahn and M. Jamrozy and I. Jung and Kastendieck, {M. A.} and K. Katarzyński and U. Katz and S. Kaufmann and D. Keogh and D. Khangulyan and B. Kh{\'e}lifi and D. Klochkov and W. Kluźniak and T. Kneiske and Nu Komin and K. Kosack and R. Kossakowski and H. Laffon and G. Lamanna and D. Lennarz and T. Lohse and A. Lopatin and Lu, {C. C.} and V. Marandon and A. Marcowith and J. Masbou and D. Maurin and N. Maxted and M. Mayer and McComb, {T. J.L.} and Medina, {M. C.} and J. M{\'e}hault and R. Moderski and E. Moulin and Naumann, {C. L.} and M. Naumann-Godo and {De Naurois}, M. and D. Nedbal and D. Nekrassov and N. Nguyen and B. Nicholas and J. Niemiec and Nolan, {S. J.} and S. Ohm and {De {\~O}a Wilhelmi}, E. and B. Opitz and M. Ostrowski and I. Oya and M. Panter and {Paz Arribas}, M. and G. Pedaletti and G. Pelletier and Petrucci, {P. O.} and S. Pita and G. P{\"u}hlhofer and M. Punch and A. Quirrenbach and M. Raue and Rayner, {S. M.} and A. Reimer and O. Reimer and M. Renaud and {De Los Reyes}, R. and F. Rieger and J. Ripken and L. Rob and S. Rosier-Lees and G. Rowell and B. Rudak and Rulten, {C. B.} and J. Ruppel and V. Sahakian and Sanchez, {D. A.} and A. Santangelo and R. Schlickeiser and Sch{\"o}ck, {F. M.} and A. Schulz and U. Schwanke and S. Schwarzburg and S. Schwemmer and F. Sheidaei and Skilton, {J. L.} and H. Sol and G. Spengler and Stawarz and R. Steenkamp and C. Stegmann and F. Stinzing and K. Stycz and I. Sushch and A. Szostek and Tavernet, {J. P.} and R. Terrier and M. Tluczykont and K. Valerius and {Van Eldik}, C. and G. Vasileiadis and C. Venter and Vialle, {J. P.} and A. Viana and P. Vincent and V{\"o}lk, {H. J.} and F. Volpe and S. Vorobiov and M. Vorster and Wagner, {S. J.} and M. Ward and R. White and A. Wierzcholska and M. Zacharias and A. Zajczyk and Zdziarski, {A. A.} and A. Zech and Zechlin, {H. S.} and J. Aleksić and Antonelli, {L. A.} and P. Antoranz and M. Backes and Barrio, {J. A.} and D. Bastieri and {Becerra Gonzlez}, J. and W. Bednarek and A. Berdyugin and K. Berger and E. Bernardini and A. Biland and O. Blanch and Bock, {R. K.} and A. Boller and G. Bonnoli and {Borla Tridon}, D. and I. Braun and T. Bretz and A. C{\~a}ellas and E. Carmona and A. Carosi and P. Colin and E. Colombo and Contreras, {J. L.} and J. Cortina and L. Cossio and S. Covino and F. Dazzi and {De Angelis}, A. and {De Cea Del Pozo}, E. and {De Lotto}, B. and {Delgado Mendez}, C. and {Diago Ortega}, A. and M. Doert and A. Dom{\'i}nguez and {Dominis Prester}, D. and D. Dorner and M. Doro and D. Elsaesser and D. Ferenc and Fonseca, {M. V.} and L. Font and C. Fruck and {Garc{\'i}a L{\'o}pez}, {R. J.} and M. Garczarczyk and D. Garrido and G. Giavitto and N. Godinović and D. Hadasch and D. H{\"a}fner and A. Herrero and D. Hildebrand and D. H{\"o}hne-M{\"o}nch and J. Hose and D. Hrupec and B. Huber and T. Jogler and S. Klepser and T. Kr{\"a}henb{\"u}hl and J. Krause and {La Barbera}, A. and D. Lelas and E. Leonardo and E. Lindfors and S. Lombardi and M. L{\'o}pez and E. Lorenz and M. Makariev and G. Maneva and N. Mankuzhiyil and K. Mannheim and L. Maraschi and M. Mariotti and M. Mart{\'i}nez and D. Mazin and M. Meucci and Miranda, {J. M.} and R. Mirzoyan and H. Miyamoto and J. Mold{\'o}n and A. Moralejo and P. Munar and D. Nieto and K. Nilsson and R. Orito and I. Oya and D. Paneque and R. Paoletti and S. Pardo and Paredes, {J. M.} and S. Partini and M. Pasanen and F. Pauss and Perez-Torres, {M. A.} and M. Persic and L. Peruzzo and M. Pilia and J. Pochon and F. Prada and {Prada Moroni}, {P. G.} and E. Prandini and I. Puljak and I. Reichardt and R. Reinthal and W. Rhode and M. Rib{\'o} and J. Rico and S. R{\"u}gamer and A. Saggion and K. Saito and Saito, {T. Y.} and M. Salvati and K. Satalecka and V. Scalzotto and V. Scapin and C. Schultz and T. Schweizer and M. Shayduk and Shore, {S. N.} and A. Sillanp{\"a}{\"a} and J. Sitarek and D. Sobczynska and F. Spanier and S. Spiro and A. Stamerra and B. Steinke and J. Storz and N. Strah and T. Surić and L. Takalo and H. Takami and F. Tavecchio and P. Temnikov and T. Terzić and D. Tescaro and M. Teshima and M. Thom and O. Tibolla and Torres, {D. F.} and A. Treves and H. Vankov and P. Vogler and Wagner, {R. M.} and Q. Weitzel and V. Zabalza and F. Zandanel and R. Zanin and T. Arlen and T. Aune and M. Beilicke and W. Benbow and A. Bouvier and Bradbury, {S. M.} and Buckley, {J. H.} and V. Bugaev and K. Byrum and A. Cannon and A. Cesarini and L. Ciupik and Connolly, {M. P.} and W. Cui and R. Dickherber and C. Duke and M. Errando and Falcone, {Abraham David} and Finley, {J. P.} and G. Finnegan and L. Fortson and A. Furniss and N. Galante and D. Gall and S. Godambe and S. Griffin and J. Grube and G. Gyuk and D. Hanna and J. Holder and H. Huan and Hui, {C. M.} and P. Kaaret and N. Karlsson and M. Kertzman and Y. Khassen and D. Kieda and H. Krawczynski and F. Krennrich and Lang, {M. J.} and S. Lebohec and G. Maier and S. McArthur and A. McCann and P. Moriarty and R. Mukherjee and Nũez, {P. D.} and Ong, {R. A.} and M. Orr and Otte, {A. N.} and N. Park and Perkins, {J. S.} and A. Pichel and M. Pohl and H. Prokoph and K. Ragan and Reyes, {L. C.} and Reynolds, {P. T.} and E. Roache and Rose, {H. J.} and J. Ruppel and M. Schroedter and Sembroski, {G. H.} and Şent{\"u}rk, {G. D.} and I. Telezhinsky and G. Teić and M. Theiling and S. Thibadeau and A. Varlotta and Vassiliev, {V. V.} and M. Vivier and Wakely, {S. P.} and Weekes, {T. C.} and Williams, {D. A.} and B. Zitzer and {Barres De Almeida}, U. and M. Cara and C. Casadio and Cheung, {C. C.} and W. McConville and F. Davies and A. Doi and G. Giovannini and M. Giroletti and K. Hada and P. Hardee and Harris, {D. E.} and W. Junor and M. Kino and Lee, {N. P.} and C. Ly and J. Madrid and F. Massaro and Mundell, {C. G.} and H. Nagai and Perlman, {E. S.} and Steele, {I. A.} and Walker, {R. C.} and Wood, {D. L.}",
year = "2012",
month = "2",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1088/0004-637X/746/2/151",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "746",
journal = "Astrophysical Journal",
issn = "0004-637X",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "2",

}

Abramowski, A, Acero, F, Aharonian, F, Akhperjanian, AG, Anton, G, Balzer, A, Barnacka, A, Barres De Almeida, U, Becherini, Y, Becker, J, Behera, B, Bernlöhr, K, Birsin, E, Biteau, J, Bochow, A, Boisson, C, Bolmont, J, Bordas, P, Brucker, J, Brun, F, Brun, P, Bulik, T, Büsching, I, Carrigan, S, Casanova, S, Cerruti, M, Chadwick, PM, Charbonnier, A, Chaves, RCG, Cheesebrough, A, Clapson, AC, Coignet, G, Cologna, G, Conrad, J, Dalton, M, Daniel, MK, Davids, ID, Degrange, B, Deil, C, Dickinson, HJ, Djannati-Ata, A, Domainko, W, Drury, LO, Dubus, G, Dutson, K, Dyks, J, Dyrda, M, Egberts, K, Eger, P, Espigat, P, Fallon, L, Farnier, C, Fegan, S, Feinstein, F, Fernandes, MV, Fiasson, A, Fontaine, G, Förster, A, Füling, M, Gallant, YA, Gast, H, Gérard, L, Gerbig, D, Giebels, B, Glicenstein, JF, Glück, B, Goret, P, Göring, D, Häffner, S, Hague, JD, Hampf, D, Hauser, M, Heinz, S, Heinzelmann, G, Henri, G, Hermann, G, Hinton, JA, Hoffmann, A, Hofmann, W, Hofverberg, P, Holler, M, Horns, D, Jacholkowska, A, De Jager, OC, Jahn, C, Jamrozy, M, Jung, I, Kastendieck, MA, Katarzyński, K, Katz, U, Kaufmann, S, Keogh, D, Khangulyan, D, Khélifi, B, Klochkov, D, Kluźniak, W, Kneiske, T, Komin, N, Kosack, K, Kossakowski, R, Laffon, H, Lamanna, G, Lennarz, D, Lohse, T, Lopatin, A, Lu, CC, Marandon, V, Marcowith, A, Masbou, J, Maurin, D, Maxted, N, Mayer, M, McComb, TJL, Medina, MC, Méhault, J, Moderski, R, Moulin, E, Naumann, CL, Naumann-Godo, M, De Naurois, M, Nedbal, D, Nekrassov, D, Nguyen, N, Nicholas, B, Niemiec, J, Nolan, SJ, Ohm, S, De Õa Wilhelmi, E, Opitz, B, Ostrowski, M, Oya, I, Panter, M, Paz Arribas, M, Pedaletti, G, Pelletier, G, Petrucci, PO, Pita, S, Pühlhofer, G, Punch, M, Quirrenbach, A, Raue, M, Rayner, SM, Reimer, A, Reimer, O, Renaud, M, De Los Reyes, R, Rieger, F, Ripken, J, Rob, L, Rosier-Lees, S, Rowell, G, Rudak, B, Rulten, CB, Ruppel, J, Sahakian, V, Sanchez, DA, Santangelo, A, Schlickeiser, R, Schöck, FM, Schulz, A, Schwanke, U, Schwarzburg, S, Schwemmer, S, Sheidaei, F, Skilton, JL, Sol, H, Spengler, G, Stawarz, Steenkamp, R, Stegmann, C, Stinzing, F, Stycz, K, Sushch, I, Szostek, A, Tavernet, JP, Terrier, R, Tluczykont, M, Valerius, K, Van Eldik, C, Vasileiadis, G, Venter, C, Vialle, JP, Viana, A, Vincent, P, Völk, HJ, Volpe, F, Vorobiov, S, Vorster, M, Wagner, SJ, Ward, M, White, R, Wierzcholska, A, Zacharias, M, Zajczyk, A, Zdziarski, AA, Zech, A, Zechlin, HS, Aleksić, J, Antonelli, LA, Antoranz, P, Backes, M, Barrio, JA, Bastieri, D, Becerra Gonzlez, J, Bednarek, W, Berdyugin, A, Berger, K, Bernardini, E, Biland, A, Blanch, O, Bock, RK, Boller, A, Bonnoli, G, Borla Tridon, D, Braun, I, Bretz, T, Cãellas, A, Carmona, E, Carosi, A, Colin, P, Colombo, E, Contreras, JL, Cortina, J, Cossio, L, Covino, S, Dazzi, F, De Angelis, A, De Cea Del Pozo, E, De Lotto, B, Delgado Mendez, C, Diago Ortega, A, Doert, M, Domínguez, A, Dominis Prester, D, Dorner, D, Doro, M, Elsaesser, D, Ferenc, D, Fonseca, MV, Font, L, Fruck, C, García López, RJ, Garczarczyk, M, Garrido, D, Giavitto, G, Godinović, N, Hadasch, D, Häfner, D, Herrero, A, Hildebrand, D, Höhne-Mönch, D, Hose, J, Hrupec, D, Huber, B, Jogler, T, Klepser, S, Krähenbühl, T, Krause, J, La Barbera, A, Lelas, D, Leonardo, E, Lindfors, E, Lombardi, S, López, M, Lorenz, E, Makariev, M, Maneva, G, Mankuzhiyil, N, Mannheim, K, Maraschi, L, Mariotti, M, Martínez, M, Mazin, D, Meucci, M, Miranda, JM, Mirzoyan, R, Miyamoto, H, Moldón, J, Moralejo, A, Munar, P, Nieto, D, Nilsson, K, Orito, R, Oya, I, Paneque, D, Paoletti, R, Pardo, S, Paredes, JM, Partini, S, Pasanen, M, Pauss, F, Perez-Torres, MA, Persic, M, Peruzzo, L, Pilia, M, Pochon, J, Prada, F, Prada Moroni, PG, Prandini, E, Puljak, I, Reichardt, I, Reinthal, R, Rhode, W, Ribó, M, Rico, J, Rügamer, S, Saggion, A, Saito, K, Saito, TY, Salvati, M, Satalecka, K, Scalzotto, V, Scapin, V, Schultz, C, Schweizer, T, Shayduk, M, Shore, SN, Sillanpää, A, Sitarek, J, Sobczynska, D, Spanier, F, Spiro, S, Stamerra, A, Steinke, B, Storz, J, Strah, N, Surić, T, Takalo, L, Takami, H, Tavecchio, F, Temnikov, P, Terzić, T, Tescaro, D, Teshima, M, Thom, M, Tibolla, O, Torres, DF, Treves, A, Vankov, H, Vogler, P, Wagner, RM, Weitzel, Q, Zabalza, V, Zandanel, F, Zanin, R, Arlen, T, Aune, T, Beilicke, M, Benbow, W, Bouvier, A, Bradbury, SM, Buckley, JH, Bugaev, V, Byrum, K, Cannon, A, Cesarini, A, Ciupik, L, Connolly, MP, Cui, W, Dickherber, R, Duke, C, Errando, M, Falcone, AD, Finley, JP, Finnegan, G, Fortson, L, Furniss, A, Galante, N, Gall, D, Godambe, S, Griffin, S, Grube, J, Gyuk, G, Hanna, D, Holder, J, Huan, H, Hui, CM, Kaaret, P, Karlsson, N, Kertzman, M, Khassen, Y, Kieda, D, Krawczynski, H, Krennrich, F, Lang, MJ, Lebohec, S, Maier, G, McArthur, S, McCann, A, Moriarty, P, Mukherjee, R, Nũez, PD, Ong, RA, Orr, M, Otte, AN, Park, N, Perkins, JS, Pichel, A, Pohl, M, Prokoph, H, Ragan, K, Reyes, LC, Reynolds, PT, Roache, E, Rose, HJ, Ruppel, J, Schroedter, M, Sembroski, GH, Şentürk, GD, Telezhinsky, I, Teić, G, Theiling, M, Thibadeau, S, Varlotta, A, Vassiliev, VV, Vivier, M, Wakely, SP, Weekes, TC, Williams, DA, Zitzer, B, Barres De Almeida, U, Cara, M, Casadio, C, Cheung, CC, McConville, W, Davies, F, Doi, A, Giovannini, G, Giroletti, M, Hada, K, Hardee, P, Harris, DE, Junor, W, Kino, M, Lee, NP, Ly, C, Madrid, J, Massaro, F, Mundell, CG, Nagai, H, Perlman, ES, Steele, IA, Walker, RC & Wood, DL 2012, 'The 2010 very high energy γ-ray flare and 10 years of multi-wavelength observations of M 87', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 746, no. 2, 151. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/746/2/151

The 2010 very high energy γ-ray flare and 10 years of multi-wavelength observations of M 87. / Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Barres De Almeida, U.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C.G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ata, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gast, H.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; De Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Keogh, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C. C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J.L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; De Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; De Õa Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P. O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; De Los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J. P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; Van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H. S.; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra Gonzlez, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cãellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea Del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar, P.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thom, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bouvier, A.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, Abraham David; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huan, H.; Hui, C. M.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Lebohec, S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nũez, P. D.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Ruppel, J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Şentürk, G. D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Teić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; Barres De Almeida, U.; Cara, M.; Casadio, C.; Cheung, C. C.; McConville, W.; Davies, F.; Doi, A.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Hada, K.; Hardee, P.; Harris, D. E.; Junor, W.; Kino, M.; Lee, N. P.; Ly, C.; Madrid, J.; Massaro, F.; Mundell, C. G.; Nagai, H.; Perlman, E. S.; Steele, I. A.; Walker, R. C.; Wood, D. L.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 746, No. 2, 151, 20.02.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The 2010 very high energy γ-ray flare and 10 years of multi-wavelength observations of M 87

AU - Abramowski, A.

AU - Acero, F.

AU - Aharonian, F.

AU - Akhperjanian, A. G.

AU - Anton, G.

AU - Balzer, A.

AU - Barnacka, A.

AU - Barres De Almeida, U.

AU - Becherini, Y.

AU - Becker, J.

AU - Behera, B.

AU - Bernlöhr, K.

AU - Birsin, E.

AU - Biteau, J.

AU - Bochow, A.

AU - Boisson, C.

AU - Bolmont, J.

AU - Bordas, P.

AU - Brucker, J.

AU - Brun, F.

AU - Brun, P.

AU - Bulik, T.

AU - Büsching, I.

AU - Carrigan, S.

AU - Casanova, S.

AU - Cerruti, M.

AU - Chadwick, P. M.

AU - Charbonnier, A.

AU - Chaves, R. C.G.

AU - Cheesebrough, A.

AU - Clapson, A. C.

AU - Coignet, G.

AU - Cologna, G.

AU - Conrad, J.

AU - Dalton, M.

AU - Daniel, M. K.

AU - Davids, I. D.

AU - Degrange, B.

AU - Deil, C.

AU - Dickinson, H. J.

AU - Djannati-Ata, A.

AU - Domainko, W.

AU - Drury, L. O.

AU - Dubus, G.

AU - Dutson, K.

AU - Dyks, J.

AU - Dyrda, M.

AU - Egberts, K.

AU - Eger, P.

AU - Espigat, P.

AU - Fallon, L.

AU - Farnier, C.

AU - Fegan, S.

AU - Feinstein, F.

AU - Fernandes, M. V.

AU - Fiasson, A.

AU - Fontaine, G.

AU - Förster, A.

AU - Füling, M.

AU - Gallant, Y. A.

AU - Gast, H.

AU - Gérard, L.

AU - Gerbig, D.

AU - Giebels, B.

AU - Glicenstein, J. F.

AU - Glück, B.

AU - Goret, P.

AU - Göring, D.

AU - Häffner, S.

AU - Hague, J. D.

AU - Hampf, D.

AU - Hauser, M.

AU - Heinz, S.

AU - Heinzelmann, G.

AU - Henri, G.

AU - Hermann, G.

AU - Hinton, J. A.

AU - Hoffmann, A.

AU - Hofmann, W.

AU - Hofverberg, P.

AU - Holler, M.

AU - Horns, D.

AU - Jacholkowska, A.

AU - De Jager, O. C.

AU - Jahn, C.

AU - Jamrozy, M.

AU - Jung, I.

AU - Kastendieck, M. A.

AU - Katarzyński, K.

AU - Katz, U.

AU - Kaufmann, S.

AU - Keogh, D.

AU - Khangulyan, D.

AU - Khélifi, B.

AU - Klochkov, D.

AU - Kluźniak, W.

AU - Kneiske, T.

AU - Komin, Nu

AU - Kosack, K.

AU - Kossakowski, R.

AU - Laffon, H.

AU - Lamanna, G.

AU - Lennarz, D.

AU - Lohse, T.

AU - Lopatin, A.

AU - Lu, C. C.

AU - Marandon, V.

AU - Marcowith, A.

AU - Masbou, J.

AU - Maurin, D.

AU - Maxted, N.

AU - Mayer, M.

AU - McComb, T. J.L.

AU - Medina, M. C.

AU - Méhault, J.

AU - Moderski, R.

AU - Moulin, E.

AU - Naumann, C. L.

AU - Naumann-Godo, M.

AU - De Naurois, M.

AU - Nedbal, D.

AU - Nekrassov, D.

AU - Nguyen, N.

AU - Nicholas, B.

AU - Niemiec, J.

AU - Nolan, S. J.

AU - Ohm, S.

AU - De Õa Wilhelmi, E.

AU - Opitz, B.

AU - Ostrowski, M.

AU - Oya, I.

AU - Panter, M.

AU - Paz Arribas, M.

AU - Pedaletti, G.

AU - Pelletier, G.

AU - Petrucci, P. O.

AU - Pita, S.

AU - Pühlhofer, G.

AU - Punch, M.

AU - Quirrenbach, A.

AU - Raue, M.

AU - Rayner, S. M.

AU - Reimer, A.

AU - Reimer, O.

AU - Renaud, M.

AU - De Los Reyes, R.

AU - Rieger, F.

AU - Ripken, J.

AU - Rob, L.

AU - Rosier-Lees, S.

AU - Rowell, G.

AU - Rudak, B.

AU - Rulten, C. B.

AU - Ruppel, J.

AU - Sahakian, V.

AU - Sanchez, D. A.

AU - Santangelo, A.

AU - Schlickeiser, R.

AU - Schöck, F. M.

AU - Schulz, A.

AU - Schwanke, U.

AU - Schwarzburg, S.

AU - Schwemmer, S.

AU - Sheidaei, F.

AU - Skilton, J. L.

AU - Sol, H.

AU - Spengler, G.

AU - Stawarz,

AU - Steenkamp, R.

AU - Stegmann, C.

AU - Stinzing, F.

AU - Stycz, K.

AU - Sushch, I.

AU - Szostek, A.

AU - Tavernet, J. P.

AU - Terrier, R.

AU - Tluczykont, M.

AU - Valerius, K.

AU - Van Eldik, C.

AU - Vasileiadis, G.

AU - Venter, C.

AU - Vialle, J. P.

AU - Viana, A.

AU - Vincent, P.

AU - Völk, H. J.

AU - Volpe, F.

AU - Vorobiov, S.

AU - Vorster, M.

AU - Wagner, S. J.

AU - Ward, M.

AU - White, R.

AU - Wierzcholska, A.

AU - Zacharias, M.

AU - Zajczyk, A.

AU - Zdziarski, A. A.

AU - Zech, A.

AU - Zechlin, H. S.

AU - Aleksić, J.

AU - Antonelli, L. A.

AU - Antoranz, P.

AU - Backes, M.

AU - Barrio, J. A.

AU - Bastieri, D.

AU - Becerra Gonzlez, J.

AU - Bednarek, W.

AU - Berdyugin, A.

AU - Berger, K.

AU - Bernardini, E.

AU - Biland, A.

AU - Blanch, O.

AU - Bock, R. K.

AU - Boller, A.

AU - Bonnoli, G.

AU - Borla Tridon, D.

AU - Braun, I.

AU - Bretz, T.

AU - Cãellas, A.

AU - Carmona, E.

AU - Carosi, A.

AU - Colin, P.

AU - Colombo, E.

AU - Contreras, J. L.

AU - Cortina, J.

AU - Cossio, L.

AU - Covino, S.

AU - Dazzi, F.

AU - De Angelis, A.

AU - De Cea Del Pozo, E.

AU - De Lotto, B.

AU - Delgado Mendez, C.

AU - Diago Ortega, A.

AU - Doert, M.

AU - Domínguez, A.

AU - Dominis Prester, D.

AU - Dorner, D.

AU - Doro, M.

AU - Elsaesser, D.

AU - Ferenc, D.

AU - Fonseca, M. V.

AU - Font, L.

AU - Fruck, C.

AU - García López, R. J.

AU - Garczarczyk, M.

AU - Garrido, D.

AU - Giavitto, G.

AU - Godinović, N.

AU - Hadasch, D.

AU - Häfner, D.

AU - Herrero, A.

AU - Hildebrand, D.

AU - Höhne-Mönch, D.

AU - Hose, J.

AU - Hrupec, D.

AU - Huber, B.

AU - Jogler, T.

AU - Klepser, S.

AU - Krähenbühl, T.

AU - Krause, J.

AU - La Barbera, A.

AU - Lelas, D.

AU - Leonardo, E.

AU - Lindfors, E.

AU - Lombardi, S.

AU - López, M.

AU - Lorenz, E.

AU - Makariev, M.

AU - Maneva, G.

AU - Mankuzhiyil, N.

AU - Mannheim, K.

AU - Maraschi, L.

AU - Mariotti, M.

AU - Martínez, M.

AU - Mazin, D.

AU - Meucci, M.

AU - Miranda, J. M.

AU - Mirzoyan, R.

AU - Miyamoto, H.

AU - Moldón, J.

AU - Moralejo, A.

AU - Munar, P.

AU - Nieto, D.

AU - Nilsson, K.

AU - Orito, R.

AU - Oya, I.

AU - Paneque, D.

AU - Paoletti, R.

AU - Pardo, S.

AU - Paredes, J. M.

AU - Partini, S.

AU - Pasanen, M.

AU - Pauss, F.

AU - Perez-Torres, M. A.

AU - Persic, M.

AU - Peruzzo, L.

AU - Pilia, M.

AU - Pochon, J.

AU - Prada, F.

AU - Prada Moroni, P. G.

AU - Prandini, E.

AU - Puljak, I.

AU - Reichardt, I.

AU - Reinthal, R.

AU - Rhode, W.

AU - Ribó, M.

AU - Rico, J.

AU - Rügamer, S.

AU - Saggion, A.

AU - Saito, K.

AU - Saito, T. Y.

AU - Salvati, M.

AU - Satalecka, K.

AU - Scalzotto, V.

AU - Scapin, V.

AU - Schultz, C.

AU - Schweizer, T.

AU - Shayduk, M.

AU - Shore, S. N.

AU - Sillanpää, A.

AU - Sitarek, J.

AU - Sobczynska, D.

AU - Spanier, F.

AU - Spiro, S.

AU - Stamerra, A.

AU - Steinke, B.

AU - Storz, J.

AU - Strah, N.

AU - Surić, T.

AU - Takalo, L.

AU - Takami, H.

AU - Tavecchio, F.

AU - Temnikov, P.

AU - Terzić, T.

AU - Tescaro, D.

AU - Teshima, M.

AU - Thom, M.

AU - Tibolla, O.

AU - Torres, D. F.

AU - Treves, A.

AU - Vankov, H.

AU - Vogler, P.

AU - Wagner, R. M.

AU - Weitzel, Q.

AU - Zabalza, V.

AU - Zandanel, F.

AU - Zanin, R.

AU - Arlen, T.

AU - Aune, T.

AU - Beilicke, M.

AU - Benbow, W.

AU - Bouvier, A.

AU - Bradbury, S. M.

AU - Buckley, J. H.

AU - Bugaev, V.

AU - Byrum, K.

AU - Cannon, A.

AU - Cesarini, A.

AU - Ciupik, L.

AU - Connolly, M. P.

AU - Cui, W.

AU - Dickherber, R.

AU - Duke, C.

AU - Errando, M.

AU - Falcone, Abraham David

AU - Finley, J. P.

AU - Finnegan, G.

AU - Fortson, L.

AU - Furniss, A.

AU - Galante, N.

AU - Gall, D.

AU - Godambe, S.

AU - Griffin, S.

AU - Grube, J.

AU - Gyuk, G.

AU - Hanna, D.

AU - Holder, J.

AU - Huan, H.

AU - Hui, C. M.

AU - Kaaret, P.

AU - Karlsson, N.

AU - Kertzman, M.

AU - Khassen, Y.

AU - Kieda, D.

AU - Krawczynski, H.

AU - Krennrich, F.

AU - Lang, M. J.

AU - Lebohec, S.

AU - Maier, G.

AU - McArthur, S.

AU - McCann, A.

AU - Moriarty, P.

AU - Mukherjee, R.

AU - Nũez, P. D.

AU - Ong, R. A.

AU - Orr, M.

AU - Otte, A. N.

AU - Park, N.

AU - Perkins, J. S.

AU - Pichel, A.

AU - Pohl, M.

AU - Prokoph, H.

AU - Ragan, K.

AU - Reyes, L. C.

AU - Reynolds, P. T.

AU - Roache, E.

AU - Rose, H. J.

AU - Ruppel, J.

AU - Schroedter, M.

AU - Sembroski, G. H.

AU - Şentürk, G. D.

AU - Telezhinsky, I.

AU - Teić, G.

AU - Theiling, M.

AU - Thibadeau, S.

AU - Varlotta, A.

AU - Vassiliev, V. V.

AU - Vivier, M.

AU - Wakely, S. P.

AU - Weekes, T. C.

AU - Williams, D. A.

AU - Zitzer, B.

AU - Barres De Almeida, U.

AU - Cara, M.

AU - Casadio, C.

AU - Cheung, C. C.

AU - McConville, W.

AU - Davies, F.

AU - Doi, A.

AU - Giovannini, G.

AU - Giroletti, M.

AU - Hada, K.

AU - Hardee, P.

AU - Harris, D. E.

AU - Junor, W.

AU - Kino, M.

AU - Lee, N. P.

AU - Ly, C.

AU - Madrid, J.

AU - Massaro, F.

AU - Mundell, C. G.

AU - Nagai, H.

AU - Perlman, E. S.

AU - Steele, I. A.

AU - Walker, R. C.

AU - Wood, D. L.

PY - 2012/2/20

Y1 - 2012/2/20

N2 - The giant radio galaxy M87 with its proximity (16Mpc), famous jet, and very massive black hole ((3 - 6) × 109M·) provides a unique opportunity to investigate the origin of very high energy (VHE; E > 100GeV) γ-ray emission generated in relativistic outflows and the surroundings of supermassive black holes. M87 has been established as a VHE γ-ray emitter since 2006. The VHE γ-ray emission displays strong variability on timescales as short as a day. In this paper, results from a joint VHE monitoring campaign on M87 by the MAGIC and VERITAS instruments in 2010 are reported. During the campaign, a flare at VHE was detected triggering further observations at VHE (H.E.S.S.), X-rays (Chandra), and radio (43GHz Very Long Baseline Array, VLBA). The excellent sampling of the VHE γ-ray light curve enables one to derive a precise temporal characterization of the flare: the single, isolated flare is well described by a two-sided exponential function with significantly different flux rise and decay times of τrise d = (1.69 ± 0.30) days and τdecay d = (0.611 0.080) days, respectively. While the overall variability pattern of the 2010 flare appears somewhat different from that of previous VHE flares in 2005 and 2008, they share very similar timescales (day), peak fluxes (Φ>0.35 TeV ≃ (1-3) × 10-11 photonscm-2 s-1), and VHE spectra. VLBA radio observations of 43GHz of the inner jet regions indicate no enhanced flux in 2010 in contrast to observations in 2008, where an increase of the radio flux of the innermost core regions coincided with a VHE flare. On the other hand, Chandra X-ray observations taken 3 days after the peak of the VHE γ-ray emission reveal an enhanced flux from the core (flux increased by factor 2; variability timescale <2 days). The long-term (2001-2010) multi-wavelength (MWL) light curve of M87, spanning from radio to VHE and including data from Hubble Space Telescope, Liverpool Telescope, Very Large Array, and European VLBI Network, is used to further investigate the origin of the VHE γ-ray emission. No unique, common MWL signature of the three VHE flares has been identified. In the outer kiloparsec jet region, in particular in HST-1, no enhanced MWL activity was detected in 2008 and 2010, disfavoring it as the origin of the VHE flares during these years. Shortly after two of the three flares (2008 and 2010), the X-ray core was observed to be at a higher flux level than its characteristic range (determined from more than 60 monitoring observations: 2002-2009). In 2005, the strong flux dominance of HST-1 could have suppressed the detection of such a feature. Published models for VHE γ-ray emission from M87 are reviewed in the light of the new data.

AB - The giant radio galaxy M87 with its proximity (16Mpc), famous jet, and very massive black hole ((3 - 6) × 109M·) provides a unique opportunity to investigate the origin of very high energy (VHE; E > 100GeV) γ-ray emission generated in relativistic outflows and the surroundings of supermassive black holes. M87 has been established as a VHE γ-ray emitter since 2006. The VHE γ-ray emission displays strong variability on timescales as short as a day. In this paper, results from a joint VHE monitoring campaign on M87 by the MAGIC and VERITAS instruments in 2010 are reported. During the campaign, a flare at VHE was detected triggering further observations at VHE (H.E.S.S.), X-rays (Chandra), and radio (43GHz Very Long Baseline Array, VLBA). The excellent sampling of the VHE γ-ray light curve enables one to derive a precise temporal characterization of the flare: the single, isolated flare is well described by a two-sided exponential function with significantly different flux rise and decay times of τrise d = (1.69 ± 0.30) days and τdecay d = (0.611 0.080) days, respectively. While the overall variability pattern of the 2010 flare appears somewhat different from that of previous VHE flares in 2005 and 2008, they share very similar timescales (day), peak fluxes (Φ>0.35 TeV ≃ (1-3) × 10-11 photonscm-2 s-1), and VHE spectra. VLBA radio observations of 43GHz of the inner jet regions indicate no enhanced flux in 2010 in contrast to observations in 2008, where an increase of the radio flux of the innermost core regions coincided with a VHE flare. On the other hand, Chandra X-ray observations taken 3 days after the peak of the VHE γ-ray emission reveal an enhanced flux from the core (flux increased by factor 2; variability timescale <2 days). The long-term (2001-2010) multi-wavelength (MWL) light curve of M87, spanning from radio to VHE and including data from Hubble Space Telescope, Liverpool Telescope, Very Large Array, and European VLBI Network, is used to further investigate the origin of the VHE γ-ray emission. No unique, common MWL signature of the three VHE flares has been identified. In the outer kiloparsec jet region, in particular in HST-1, no enhanced MWL activity was detected in 2008 and 2010, disfavoring it as the origin of the VHE flares during these years. Shortly after two of the three flares (2008 and 2010), the X-ray core was observed to be at a higher flux level than its characteristic range (determined from more than 60 monitoring observations: 2002-2009). In 2005, the strong flux dominance of HST-1 could have suppressed the detection of such a feature. Published models for VHE γ-ray emission from M87 are reviewed in the light of the new data.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84856903650&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84856903650&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/0004-637X/746/2/151

DO - 10.1088/0004-637X/746/2/151

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84856903650

VL - 746

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 2

M1 - 151

ER -

Abramowski A, Acero F, Aharonian F, Akhperjanian AG, Anton G, Balzer A et al. The 2010 very high energy γ-ray flare and 10 years of multi-wavelength observations of M 87. Astrophysical Journal. 2012 Feb 20;746(2). 151. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/746/2/151