Purpose: Prostate apoptosis response protein-4 (Par-4) sensitizes cells to chemotherapy; however, Akt1 inactivates Par-4. Previously we showed that Par-4-overexpressing colon cancer cells responded more readily to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) than their wild-type counterparts. In this study we investigated (i) the effects of the Akt inhibitor, phenylbutyl isoselenocyanate (ISC-4), on tumor growth in nude mice and (ii) bystander effect of Par-4-overexpressing cells on wild-type tumor growth. Experimental Design: Mice (n=80) were injected with wild-type HT29 human colon cancer cells in the right flank. Forty of the mice were also injected in the left flank with HT29 cells engineered to overexpress Par-4. The mice were treated with 5-FU, ISC-4, a combination, or vehicle. Results: ISC-4 reduced tumor growth, with or without 5-FU. When Par-4-overexpressing tumors were present, wild-type tumors grew more slowly compared to when no Par-4-overexpressing tumors were present. The level of Par-4 protein as well as the Par-4 binding protein, GRP78, was increased in wild-type cells growing in the same mouse as Par-4-overexpressing tumors compared with wild-type tumors growing without Par-4-overexpressing tumors. Conclusions: Par-4-overexpressing tumors exhibited a bystander effect on wild-type tumors growing distally in the same mouse. This suggests that gene therapy need not achieve total penetration to have a positive effect on tumor treatment. Inhibition of Akt with ISC-4 inhibited tumor growth and had a greater effect on cells overexpressing Par-4. The data indicate ISC-4 alone or in combination with Par-4 can greatly reduce tumor growth.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research