The patterning of allele frequency variability among 18 local groups of Gainj and Kalam speakers of highland Papua New Guinea is investigated using new genetic distance methods. The genetic distances proposed here are obtained by decomposing Sewall Wright's coefficient FST into a set of coefficients corresponding to all pairs of population subdivisions. Two statistical methods are given to estimate these quantities. One method provides estimates weighted by sample sizes, while the other method does not use sample size weighting. Both methods correct for the within-individual and between-individual-within-groups sums of squares. Genetic distances among the Gainj and Kalam subdivisions are analyzed with respect to demographic, geographic, and linguistic variables. We find that a demographic feature, group size, has the greatest demonstrable association with the patterning of genetic distances. The pattern of geographic distances among groups displays a weak congruence with the pattern of genetic distances, and the association of genetic and linguistic diversity is very low. An effect of differences in group size on genetic distances is not surprising, from basic theoretical considerations, but genetic distances have not often been analyzed with respect to these variables in the past. The lack of correspondence between genetic distances and linguistic and geographic differences is an unusual feature that distinguishes the Gainj and Kalam from most other tribal populations.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||11|
|State||Published - Oct 1987|
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