Background Exploring the association of coronavirus-2019 disease (COVID-19) mortality with chronic pre-existing conditions may promote the importance of targeting these populations during this pandemic to optimize survival. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to explore the association of pre-existing conditions with COVID-19 mortality. Methods We searched MEDLINE, OVID databases, SCOPUS, and medrxiv.org for the period December 1, 2019, to May 1, 2020. The outcome of interest was the risk of COVID-19 mortality in patients with and without pre-existing conditions. Comorbidities explored were cardiovascular diseases (coronary artery disease, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and congestive heart failure), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, and stroke. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. All analyses were performed using random-effects models and heterogeneity was quantified. Results Ten chronic conditions from 19 studies were included in the meta-analysis (n = 61,455 patients with COVID-19; mean age, 61 years; 57% male). Overall the between-study study heterogeneity was medium and studies had low publication bias and high quality. Coronary heart disease, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and cancer significantly increased the risk of mortality from COVID-19. The risk of mortality from COVID-19 in patients with coronary heart disease was 2.4 times as high as those without coronary heart disease (RR= 2.40, 95%CI=1.71-3.37, n=5) and twice as high in patients with hypertension as high as that compared to those without hypertension (RR=1.89, 95%CI= 1.58-2.27, n=9). Patients with cancer also were at twice the risk of mortality from COVID-19 compared to those without cancer (RR=1.93 95%CI 1.15-3.24, n=4), and those with congestive heart failure were at 2.5 times the risk of mortality compared to those without congestive heart failure (RR=2.66, 95%CI 1.58-4.48, n=3). Conclusions COVID-19 patients with all any cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and cancer have an increased risk of mortality. Tailored infection prevention and treatment strategies targeting this high-risk population are warranted to optimize survival. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest. ### Funding Statement This study was not funded. ### Author Declarations I confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained. Yes The details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below: This is a meta-analysis and therefore it is IRB exempt. All necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived. Yes I understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance). Yes I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable. Yes All data is available within this manuscript.
Ssentongo, P., Ssentongo, A. E., Heilbrunn, E. S., Ba, D. M., & Chinchilli, V. M. (2020). The association of cardiovascular disease and other pre-existing comorbidities with COVID-19 mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv, 2020.05.10.20097253. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.10.20097253