Background: Outcome measures are used to evaluate patients with shoulder pathology and provide an assessment of function. There are two categories of outcome measures: self-report measures (SRMs), which provide the patient’s perspective, and physical performance measures (PPMs), which provide an objective assessment. Collection of both SRM and PPM is indicated, although little evidence dictates that a combination of SRM and PPM measures is best for different populations of patients. Objectives: We reviewed shoulder-specific SRMs and PPMs for general outpatient, athlete, and geriatric populations with shoulder pain and provided our recommendations for the best combination of SRM and PPM currently available for each population, based on the literature and our clinical opinion. Major Findings: Each population has diverse needs and expectations, thus requiring different measures to evaluate function. Although additional, population-specific research is still needed, we propose these clinical recommendations. For a general outpatient population, QuickDASH-9 is the recommended SRM; upper quarter Y balance test (UQYBT) and single arm shot-put test are the recommended PPMs. For athletes, we recommend Kerlan-Jobe orthopedic clinic shoulder and elbow score (KJOC-SES) as the SRM, in combination with the closed kinetic chain upper extremity stability test (CKCUEST) as the PPM. For a geriatric population, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Society standardized shoulder assessment form is our SRM recommendation, along with functional impairment test-hand and neck/shoulder/arm (FIT-HaNSA) for PPM assessment. Conclusions: A combination of SRMs and PPMs is desired to comprehensively capture function. There remains a need for exploration of which SRM/PPM combination is best to evaluate shoulder function in these three patient populations.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine