We provide X-ray constraints and perform the first X-ray spectral analyses for bright SCUBA sources (f850 μm ≥ 5 mJy; signal-to-noise ratio ≥4) in an 8′.4 × 8′.4 area of the 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field North survey containing the Hubble Deep Field North. X-ray emission is detected from seven of the 10 bright submillimeter sources in this region down to 0.5-8.0 keV fluxes of ≈1 × 10-16 ergs cm-2 s-1, corresponding to an X-ray-detected submillimeter source density of 360-130+190 deg-2; our analyses suggest that this equates to an X-ray-detected fraction of the bright submillimeter source population of ≲ 36%, although systematic effects may be present. Two of the X-ray-detected sources have nearby (within 3″) X-ray companions, suggesting merging/interacting sources or gravitational lensing effects, and three of the X-ray-detected sources lie within the approximate extent of the protocluster candidate CXOHDFN J123620.0+621554. Five of the X-ray-detected sources have flat effective X-ray spectral slopes (Γ < 1.0), suggesting obscured AGN activity. X-ray spectral analyses suggest that one of these AGNs may be a Compton-thick source; of the other four AGNs, three appear to be Compton-thin sources and one has poor constraints. The rest-frame unabsorbed X-ray luminosities of these AGNs are more consistent with those of Seyfert galaxies than QSOs (i.e., LX ≈ 1043-10 44 ergs s-1). Thus, the low X-ray detection rate of bright submillimeter sources by moderately deep X-ray surveys appears to be due to the relatively low luminosities of the AGNs in these sources rather than Compton-thick absorption. A comparison of these sources with the well-studied, heavily obscured AGN NGC 6240 shows that the average AGN contribution is negligible at submillimeter wavelengths. The X-ray properties of the other two X-ray-detected sources are consistent with those expected from luminous star formation; however, we cannot rule out the possibility that low-luminosity AGNs are present. The three X-ray-undetected sources appear to lie at high redshift (z > 4) and could be either AGNs or starburst galaxies.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science