The design and performance of IceCube DeepCore

R. Abbasi, Y. Abdou, T. Abu-Zayyad, M. Ackermann, J. Adams, J. A. Aguilar, M. Ahlers, M. M. Allen, D. Altmann, K. Andeen, J. Auffenberg, X. Bai, M. Baker, S. W. Barwick, R. Bay, J. L. Bazo Alba, K. Beattie, J. J. Beatty, S. Bechet, J. K. BeckerK. H. Becker, M. L. Benabderrahmane, S. Benzvi, J. Berdermann, P. Berghaus, D. Berley, E. Bernardini, D. Bertrand, D. Z. Besson, D. Bindig, M. Bissok, E. Blaufuss, J. Blumenthal, D. J. Boersma, C. Bohm, D. Bose, S. Böser, O. Botner, A. M. Brown, S. Buitink, K. S. Caballero-Mora, M. Carson, D. Chirkin, B. Christy, F. Clevermann, S. Cohen, C. Colnard, D. F. Cowen, A. H. Cruz Silva, M. V. D'Agostino, M. Danninger, J. Daughhetee, J. C. Davis, C. De Clercq, T. Degner, L. Demirörs, F. Descamps, P. Desiati, G. De Vries-Uiterweerd, T. Deyoung, J. C. Díaz-Vélez, M. Dierckxsens, J. Dreyer, J. P. Dumm, M. Dunkman, J. Eisch, R. W. Ellsworth, O. Engdegrd, S. Euler, P. A. Evenson, O. Fadiran, A. R. Fazely, A. Fedynitch, J. Feintzeig, T. Feusels, K. Filimonov, C. Finley, T. Fischer-Wasels, B. D. Fox, A. Franckowiak, R. Franke, T. K. Gaisser, J. Gallagher, L. Gerhardt, L. Gladstone, T. Glüsenkamp, A. Goldschmidt, J. A. Goodman, D. Góra, D. Grant, T. Griesel, A. Groß, S. Grullon, M. Gurtner, C. Ha, A. Haj Ismail, A. Hallgren, F. Halzen, K. Han, K. Hanson, D. Heinen, K. Helbing, R. Hellauer, S. Hickford, G. C. Hill, K. D. Hoffman, B. Hoffmann, A. Homeier, K. Hoshina, W. Huelsnitz, J. P. Hülß, P. O. Hulth, K. Hultqvist, S. Hussain, A. Ishihara, E. Jacobi, J. Jacobsen, G. S. Japaridze, H. Johansson, K. H. Kampert, A. Kappes, T. Karg, A. Karle, P. Kenny, J. Kiryluk, F. Kislat, S. R. Klein, J. H. Köhne, G. Kohnen, H. Kolanoski, L. Köpke, D. J. Koskinen, M. Kowalski, T. Kowarik, M. Krasberg, G. Kroll, N. Kurahashi, T. Kuwabara, M. Labare, K. Laihem, H. Landsman, M. J. Larson, R. Lauer, J. Lünemann, J. Madsen, A. Marotta, R. Maruyama, K. Mase, H. S. Matis, K. Meagher, M. Merck, P. Mészáros, T. Meures, S. Miarecki, E. Middell, N. Milke, J. Miller, T. Montaruli, R. Morse, S. M. Movit, R. Nahnhauer, J. W. Nam, U. Naumann, D. R. Nygren, S. Odrowski, A. Olivas, M. Olivo, A. O'Murchadha, S. Panknin, L. Paul, C. Pérez De Los Heros, J. Petrovic, A. Piegsa, D. Pieloth, R. Porrata, J. Posselt, P. B. Price, G. T. Przybylski, K. Rawlins, P. Redl, E. Resconi, W. Rhode, M. Ribordy, M. Richman, J. P. Rodrigues, F. Rothmaier, C. Rott, T. Ruhe, D. Rutledge, B. Ruzybayev, D. Ryckbosch, H. G. Sander, M. Santander, S. Sarkar, K. Schatto, T. Schmidt, A. Schönwald, A. Schukraft, A. Schultes, O. Schulz, M. Schunck, D. Seckel, B. Semburg, S. H. Seo, Y. Sestayo, S. Seunarine, A. Silvestri, G. M. Spiczak, C. Spiering, M. Stamatikos, T. Stanev, T. Stezelberger, R. G. Stokstad, A. Stößl, E. A. Strahler, R. Ström, M. Stüer, G. W. Sullivan, Q. Swillens, H. Taavola, I. Taboada, A. Tamburro, A. Tepe, S. Ter-Antonyan, S. Tilav, P. A. Toale, S. Toscano, D. Tosi, N. Van Eijndhoven, J. Vandenbroucke, A. Van Overloop, J. Van Santen, M. Vehring, M. Voge, C. Walck, T. Waldenmaier, M. Wallraff, M. Walter, Ch Weaver, C. Wendt, S. Westerhoff, N. Whitehorn, K. Wiebe, C. H. Wiebusch, D. R. Williams, R. Wischnewski, H. Wissing, M. Wolf, T. R. Wood, K. Woschnagg, C. Xu, D. L. Xu, X. W. Xu, J. P. Yanez, G. Yodh, S. Yoshida, P. Zarzhitsky, M. Zoll

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The IceCube neutrino observatory in operation at the South Pole, Antarctica, comprises three distinct components: a large buried array for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection, a surface air shower array, and a new buried component called DeepCore. DeepCore was designed to lower the IceCube neutrino energy threshold by over an order of magnitude, to energies as low as about 10 GeV. DeepCore is situated primarily 2100 m below the surface of the icecap at the South Pole, at the bottom center of the existing IceCube array, and began taking physics data in May 2010. Its location takes advantage of the exceptionally clear ice at those depths and allows it to use the surrounding IceCube detector as a highly efficient active veto against the principal background of downward-going muons produced in cosmic-ray air showers. DeepCore has a module density roughly five times higher than that of the standard IceCube array, and uses photomultiplier tubes with a new photocathode featuring a quantum efficiency about 35% higher than standard IceCube PMTs. Taken together, these features of DeepCore will increase IceCube's sensitivity to neutrinos from WIMP dark matter annihilations, atmospheric neutrino oscillations, galactic supernova neutrinos, and point sources of neutrinos in the northern and southern skies. In this paper we describe the design and initial performance of DeepCore.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)615-624
Number of pages10
JournalAstroparticle Physics
Volume35
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2012

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neutrinos
cosmic ray showers
poles
northern sky
Southern sky
weakly interacting massive particles
photocathodes
Antarctic regions
photomultiplier tubes
point sources
supernovae
energy
quantum efficiency
muons
cosmic rays
dark matter
observatories
ice
modules
oscillations

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Abbasi, R., Abdou, Y., Abu-Zayyad, T., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., ... Zoll, M. (2012). The design and performance of IceCube DeepCore. Astroparticle Physics, 35(10), 615-624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2012.01.004
Abbasi, R. ; Abdou, Y. ; Abu-Zayyad, T. ; Ackermann, M. ; Adams, J. ; Aguilar, J. A. ; Ahlers, M. ; Allen, M. M. ; Altmann, D. ; Andeen, K. ; Auffenberg, J. ; Bai, X. ; Baker, M. ; Barwick, S. W. ; Bay, R. ; Bazo Alba, J. L. ; Beattie, K. ; Beatty, J. J. ; Bechet, S. ; Becker, J. K. ; Becker, K. H. ; Benabderrahmane, M. L. ; Benzvi, S. ; Berdermann, J. ; Berghaus, P. ; Berley, D. ; Bernardini, E. ; Bertrand, D. ; Besson, D. Z. ; Bindig, D. ; Bissok, M. ; Blaufuss, E. ; Blumenthal, J. ; Boersma, D. J. ; Bohm, C. ; Bose, D. ; Böser, S. ; Botner, O. ; Brown, A. M. ; Buitink, S. ; Caballero-Mora, K. S. ; Carson, M. ; Chirkin, D. ; Christy, B. ; Clevermann, F. ; Cohen, S. ; Colnard, C. ; Cowen, D. F. ; Cruz Silva, A. H. ; D'Agostino, M. V. ; Danninger, M. ; Daughhetee, J. ; Davis, J. C. ; De Clercq, C. ; Degner, T. ; Demirörs, L. ; Descamps, F. ; Desiati, P. ; De Vries-Uiterweerd, G. ; Deyoung, T. ; Díaz-Vélez, J. C. ; Dierckxsens, M. ; Dreyer, J. ; Dumm, J. P. ; Dunkman, M. ; Eisch, J. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Engdegrd, O. ; Euler, S. ; Evenson, P. A. ; Fadiran, O. ; Fazely, A. R. ; Fedynitch, A. ; Feintzeig, J. ; Feusels, T. ; Filimonov, K. ; Finley, C. ; Fischer-Wasels, T. ; Fox, B. D. ; Franckowiak, A. ; Franke, R. ; Gaisser, T. K. ; Gallagher, J. ; Gerhardt, L. ; Gladstone, L. ; Glüsenkamp, T. ; Goldschmidt, A. ; Goodman, J. A. ; Góra, D. ; Grant, D. ; Griesel, T. ; Groß, A. ; Grullon, S. ; Gurtner, M. ; Ha, C. ; Haj Ismail, A. ; Hallgren, A. ; Halzen, F. ; Han, K. ; Hanson, K. ; Heinen, D. ; Helbing, K. ; Hellauer, R. ; Hickford, S. ; Hill, G. C. ; Hoffman, K. D. ; Hoffmann, B. ; Homeier, A. ; Hoshina, K. ; Huelsnitz, W. ; Hülß, J. P. ; Hulth, P. O. ; Hultqvist, K. ; Hussain, S. ; Ishihara, A. ; Jacobi, E. ; Jacobsen, J. ; Japaridze, G. S. ; Johansson, H. ; Kampert, K. H. ; Kappes, A. ; Karg, T. ; Karle, A. ; Kenny, P. ; Kiryluk, J. ; Kislat, F. ; Klein, S. R. ; Köhne, J. H. ; Kohnen, G. ; Kolanoski, H. ; Köpke, L. ; Koskinen, D. J. ; Kowalski, M. ; Kowarik, T. ; Krasberg, M. ; Kroll, G. ; Kurahashi, N. ; Kuwabara, T. ; Labare, M. ; Laihem, K. ; Landsman, H. ; Larson, M. J. ; Lauer, R. ; Lünemann, J. ; Madsen, J. ; Marotta, A. ; Maruyama, R. ; Mase, K. ; Matis, H. S. ; Meagher, K. ; Merck, M. ; Mészáros, P. ; Meures, T. ; Miarecki, S. ; Middell, E. ; Milke, N. ; Miller, J. ; Montaruli, T. ; Morse, R. ; Movit, S. M. ; Nahnhauer, R. ; Nam, J. W. ; Naumann, U. ; Nygren, D. R. ; Odrowski, S. ; Olivas, A. ; Olivo, M. ; O'Murchadha, A. ; Panknin, S. ; Paul, L. ; Pérez De Los Heros, C. ; Petrovic, J. ; Piegsa, A. ; Pieloth, D. ; Porrata, R. ; Posselt, J. ; Price, P. B. ; Przybylski, G. T. ; Rawlins, K. ; Redl, P. ; Resconi, E. ; Rhode, W. ; Ribordy, M. ; Richman, M. ; Rodrigues, J. P. ; Rothmaier, F. ; Rott, C. ; Ruhe, T. ; Rutledge, D. ; Ruzybayev, B. ; Ryckbosch, D. ; Sander, H. G. ; Santander, M. ; Sarkar, S. ; Schatto, K. ; Schmidt, T. ; Schönwald, A. ; Schukraft, A. ; Schultes, A. ; Schulz, O. ; Schunck, M. ; Seckel, D. ; Semburg, B. ; Seo, S. H. ; Sestayo, Y. ; Seunarine, S. ; Silvestri, A. ; Spiczak, G. M. ; Spiering, C. ; Stamatikos, M. ; Stanev, T. ; Stezelberger, T. ; Stokstad, R. G. ; Stößl, A. ; Strahler, E. A. ; Ström, R. ; Stüer, M. ; Sullivan, G. W. ; Swillens, Q. ; Taavola, H. ; Taboada, I. ; Tamburro, A. ; Tepe, A. ; Ter-Antonyan, S. ; Tilav, S. ; Toale, P. A. ; Toscano, S. ; Tosi, D. ; Van Eijndhoven, N. ; Vandenbroucke, J. ; Van Overloop, A. ; Van Santen, J. ; Vehring, M. ; Voge, M. ; Walck, C. ; Waldenmaier, T. ; Wallraff, M. ; Walter, M. ; Weaver, Ch ; Wendt, C. ; Westerhoff, S. ; Whitehorn, N. ; Wiebe, K. ; Wiebusch, C. H. ; Williams, D. R. ; Wischnewski, R. ; Wissing, H. ; Wolf, M. ; Wood, T. R. ; Woschnagg, K. ; Xu, C. ; Xu, D. L. ; Xu, X. W. ; Yanez, J. P. ; Yodh, G. ; Yoshida, S. ; Zarzhitsky, P. ; Zoll, M. / The design and performance of IceCube DeepCore. In: Astroparticle Physics. 2012 ; Vol. 35, No. 10. pp. 615-624.
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abstract = "The IceCube neutrino observatory in operation at the South Pole, Antarctica, comprises three distinct components: a large buried array for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection, a surface air shower array, and a new buried component called DeepCore. DeepCore was designed to lower the IceCube neutrino energy threshold by over an order of magnitude, to energies as low as about 10 GeV. DeepCore is situated primarily 2100 m below the surface of the icecap at the South Pole, at the bottom center of the existing IceCube array, and began taking physics data in May 2010. Its location takes advantage of the exceptionally clear ice at those depths and allows it to use the surrounding IceCube detector as a highly efficient active veto against the principal background of downward-going muons produced in cosmic-ray air showers. DeepCore has a module density roughly five times higher than that of the standard IceCube array, and uses photomultiplier tubes with a new photocathode featuring a quantum efficiency about 35{\%} higher than standard IceCube PMTs. Taken together, these features of DeepCore will increase IceCube's sensitivity to neutrinos from WIMP dark matter annihilations, atmospheric neutrino oscillations, galactic supernova neutrinos, and point sources of neutrinos in the northern and southern skies. In this paper we describe the design and initial performance of DeepCore.",
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}

Abbasi, R, Abdou, Y, Abu-Zayyad, T, Ackermann, M, Adams, J, Aguilar, JA, Ahlers, M, Allen, MM, Altmann, D, Andeen, K, Auffenberg, J, Bai, X, Baker, M, Barwick, SW, Bay, R, Bazo Alba, JL, Beattie, K, Beatty, JJ, Bechet, S, Becker, JK, Becker, KH, Benabderrahmane, ML, Benzvi, S, Berdermann, J, Berghaus, P, Berley, D, Bernardini, E, Bertrand, D, Besson, DZ, Bindig, D, Bissok, M, Blaufuss, E, Blumenthal, J, Boersma, DJ, Bohm, C, Bose, D, Böser, S, Botner, O, Brown, AM, Buitink, S, Caballero-Mora, KS, Carson, M, Chirkin, D, Christy, B, Clevermann, F, Cohen, S, Colnard, C, Cowen, DF, Cruz Silva, AH, D'Agostino, MV, Danninger, M, Daughhetee, J, Davis, JC, De Clercq, C, Degner, T, Demirörs, L, Descamps, F, Desiati, P, De Vries-Uiterweerd, G, Deyoung, T, Díaz-Vélez, JC, Dierckxsens, M, Dreyer, J, Dumm, JP, Dunkman, M, Eisch, J, Ellsworth, RW, Engdegrd, O, Euler, S, Evenson, PA, Fadiran, O, Fazely, AR, Fedynitch, A, Feintzeig, J, Feusels, T, Filimonov, K, Finley, C, Fischer-Wasels, T, Fox, BD, Franckowiak, A, Franke, R, Gaisser, TK, Gallagher, J, Gerhardt, L, Gladstone, L, Glüsenkamp, T, Goldschmidt, A, Goodman, JA, Góra, D, Grant, D, Griesel, T, Groß, A, Grullon, S, Gurtner, M, Ha, C, Haj Ismail, A, Hallgren, A, Halzen, F, Han, K, Hanson, K, Heinen, D, Helbing, K, Hellauer, R, Hickford, S, Hill, GC, Hoffman, KD, Hoffmann, B, Homeier, A, Hoshina, K, Huelsnitz, W, Hülß, JP, Hulth, PO, Hultqvist, K, Hussain, S, Ishihara, A, Jacobi, E, Jacobsen, J, Japaridze, GS, Johansson, H, Kampert, KH, Kappes, A, Karg, T, Karle, A, Kenny, P, Kiryluk, J, Kislat, F, Klein, SR, Köhne, JH, Kohnen, G, Kolanoski, H, Köpke, L, Koskinen, DJ, Kowalski, M, Kowarik, T, Krasberg, M, Kroll, G, Kurahashi, N, Kuwabara, T, Labare, M, Laihem, K, Landsman, H, Larson, MJ, Lauer, R, Lünemann, J, Madsen, J, Marotta, A, Maruyama, R, Mase, K, Matis, HS, Meagher, K, Merck, M, Mészáros, P, Meures, T, Miarecki, S, Middell, E, Milke, N, Miller, J, Montaruli, T, Morse, R, Movit, SM, Nahnhauer, R, Nam, JW, Naumann, U, Nygren, DR, Odrowski, S, Olivas, A, Olivo, M, O'Murchadha, A, Panknin, S, Paul, L, Pérez De Los Heros, C, Petrovic, J, Piegsa, A, Pieloth, D, Porrata, R, Posselt, J, Price, PB, Przybylski, GT, Rawlins, K, Redl, P, Resconi, E, Rhode, W, Ribordy, M, Richman, M, Rodrigues, JP, Rothmaier, F, Rott, C, Ruhe, T, Rutledge, D, Ruzybayev, B, Ryckbosch, D, Sander, HG, Santander, M, Sarkar, S, Schatto, K, Schmidt, T, Schönwald, A, Schukraft, A, Schultes, A, Schulz, O, Schunck, M, Seckel, D, Semburg, B, Seo, SH, Sestayo, Y, Seunarine, S, Silvestri, A, Spiczak, GM, Spiering, C, Stamatikos, M, Stanev, T, Stezelberger, T, Stokstad, RG, Stößl, A, Strahler, EA, Ström, R, Stüer, M, Sullivan, GW, Swillens, Q, Taavola, H, Taboada, I, Tamburro, A, Tepe, A, Ter-Antonyan, S, Tilav, S, Toale, PA, Toscano, S, Tosi, D, Van Eijndhoven, N, Vandenbroucke, J, Van Overloop, A, Van Santen, J, Vehring, M, Voge, M, Walck, C, Waldenmaier, T, Wallraff, M, Walter, M, Weaver, C, Wendt, C, Westerhoff, S, Whitehorn, N, Wiebe, K, Wiebusch, CH, Williams, DR, Wischnewski, R, Wissing, H, Wolf, M, Wood, TR, Woschnagg, K, Xu, C, Xu, DL, Xu, XW, Yanez, JP, Yodh, G, Yoshida, S, Zarzhitsky, P & Zoll, M 2012, 'The design and performance of IceCube DeepCore', Astroparticle Physics, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 615-624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2012.01.004

The design and performance of IceCube DeepCore. / Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Allen, M. M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Benzvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brown, A. M.; Buitink, S.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; Degner, T.; Demirörs, L.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; De Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegrd, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, B.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J. P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Kampert, K. H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J. H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez De Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H. G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Stüer, M.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; Van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.

In: Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 35, No. 10, 01.05.2012, p. 615-624.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The design and performance of IceCube DeepCore

AU - Abbasi, R.

AU - Abdou, Y.

AU - Abu-Zayyad, T.

AU - Ackermann, M.

AU - Adams, J.

AU - Aguilar, J. A.

AU - Ahlers, M.

AU - Allen, M. M.

AU - Altmann, D.

AU - Andeen, K.

AU - Auffenberg, J.

AU - Bai, X.

AU - Baker, M.

AU - Barwick, S. W.

AU - Bay, R.

AU - Bazo Alba, J. L.

AU - Beattie, K.

AU - Beatty, J. J.

AU - Bechet, S.

AU - Becker, J. K.

AU - Becker, K. H.

AU - Benabderrahmane, M. L.

AU - Benzvi, S.

AU - Berdermann, J.

AU - Berghaus, P.

AU - Berley, D.

AU - Bernardini, E.

AU - Bertrand, D.

AU - Besson, D. Z.

AU - Bindig, D.

AU - Bissok, M.

AU - Blaufuss, E.

AU - Blumenthal, J.

AU - Boersma, D. J.

AU - Bohm, C.

AU - Bose, D.

AU - Böser, S.

AU - Botner, O.

AU - Brown, A. M.

AU - Buitink, S.

AU - Caballero-Mora, K. S.

AU - Carson, M.

AU - Chirkin, D.

AU - Christy, B.

AU - Clevermann, F.

AU - Cohen, S.

AU - Colnard, C.

AU - Cowen, D. F.

AU - Cruz Silva, A. H.

AU - D'Agostino, M. V.

AU - Danninger, M.

AU - Daughhetee, J.

AU - Davis, J. C.

AU - De Clercq, C.

AU - Degner, T.

AU - Demirörs, L.

AU - Descamps, F.

AU - Desiati, P.

AU - De Vries-Uiterweerd, G.

AU - Deyoung, T.

AU - Díaz-Vélez, J. C.

AU - Dierckxsens, M.

AU - Dreyer, J.

AU - Dumm, J. P.

AU - Dunkman, M.

AU - Eisch, J.

AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

AU - Engdegrd, O.

AU - Euler, S.

AU - Evenson, P. A.

AU - Fadiran, O.

AU - Fazely, A. R.

AU - Fedynitch, A.

AU - Feintzeig, J.

AU - Feusels, T.

AU - Filimonov, K.

AU - Finley, C.

AU - Fischer-Wasels, T.

AU - Fox, B. D.

AU - Franckowiak, A.

AU - Franke, R.

AU - Gaisser, T. K.

AU - Gallagher, J.

AU - Gerhardt, L.

AU - Gladstone, L.

AU - Glüsenkamp, T.

AU - Goldschmidt, A.

AU - Goodman, J. A.

AU - Góra, D.

AU - Grant, D.

AU - Griesel, T.

AU - Groß, A.

AU - Grullon, S.

AU - Gurtner, M.

AU - Ha, C.

AU - Haj Ismail, A.

AU - Hallgren, A.

AU - Halzen, F.

AU - Han, K.

AU - Hanson, K.

AU - Heinen, D.

AU - Helbing, K.

AU - Hellauer, R.

AU - Hickford, S.

AU - Hill, G. C.

AU - Hoffman, K. D.

AU - Hoffmann, B.

AU - Homeier, A.

AU - Hoshina, K.

AU - Huelsnitz, W.

AU - Hülß, J. P.

AU - Hulth, P. O.

AU - Hultqvist, K.

AU - Hussain, S.

AU - Ishihara, A.

AU - Jacobi, E.

AU - Jacobsen, J.

AU - Japaridze, G. S.

AU - Johansson, H.

AU - Kampert, K. H.

AU - Kappes, A.

AU - Karg, T.

AU - Karle, A.

AU - Kenny, P.

AU - Kiryluk, J.

AU - Kislat, F.

AU - Klein, S. R.

AU - Köhne, J. H.

AU - Kohnen, G.

AU - Kolanoski, H.

AU - Köpke, L.

AU - Koskinen, D. J.

AU - Kowalski, M.

AU - Kowarik, T.

AU - Krasberg, M.

AU - Kroll, G.

AU - Kurahashi, N.

AU - Kuwabara, T.

AU - Labare, M.

AU - Laihem, K.

AU - Landsman, H.

AU - Larson, M. J.

AU - Lauer, R.

AU - Lünemann, J.

AU - Madsen, J.

AU - Marotta, A.

AU - Maruyama, R.

AU - Mase, K.

AU - Matis, H. S.

AU - Meagher, K.

AU - Merck, M.

AU - Mészáros, P.

AU - Meures, T.

AU - Miarecki, S.

AU - Middell, E.

AU - Milke, N.

AU - Miller, J.

AU - Montaruli, T.

AU - Morse, R.

AU - Movit, S. M.

AU - Nahnhauer, R.

AU - Nam, J. W.

AU - Naumann, U.

AU - Nygren, D. R.

AU - Odrowski, S.

AU - Olivas, A.

AU - Olivo, M.

AU - O'Murchadha, A.

AU - Panknin, S.

AU - Paul, L.

AU - Pérez De Los Heros, C.

AU - Petrovic, J.

AU - Piegsa, A.

AU - Pieloth, D.

AU - Porrata, R.

AU - Posselt, J.

AU - Price, P. B.

AU - Przybylski, G. T.

AU - Rawlins, K.

AU - Redl, P.

AU - Resconi, E.

AU - Rhode, W.

AU - Ribordy, M.

AU - Richman, M.

AU - Rodrigues, J. P.

AU - Rothmaier, F.

AU - Rott, C.

AU - Ruhe, T.

AU - Rutledge, D.

AU - Ruzybayev, B.

AU - Ryckbosch, D.

AU - Sander, H. G.

AU - Santander, M.

AU - Sarkar, S.

AU - Schatto, K.

AU - Schmidt, T.

AU - Schönwald, A.

AU - Schukraft, A.

AU - Schultes, A.

AU - Schulz, O.

AU - Schunck, M.

AU - Seckel, D.

AU - Semburg, B.

AU - Seo, S. H.

AU - Sestayo, Y.

AU - Seunarine, S.

AU - Silvestri, A.

AU - Spiczak, G. M.

AU - Spiering, C.

AU - Stamatikos, M.

AU - Stanev, T.

AU - Stezelberger, T.

AU - Stokstad, R. G.

AU - Stößl, A.

AU - Strahler, E. A.

AU - Ström, R.

AU - Stüer, M.

AU - Sullivan, G. W.

AU - Swillens, Q.

AU - Taavola, H.

AU - Taboada, I.

AU - Tamburro, A.

AU - Tepe, A.

AU - Ter-Antonyan, S.

AU - Tilav, S.

AU - Toale, P. A.

AU - Toscano, S.

AU - Tosi, D.

AU - Van Eijndhoven, N.

AU - Vandenbroucke, J.

AU - Van Overloop, A.

AU - Van Santen, J.

AU - Vehring, M.

AU - Voge, M.

AU - Walck, C.

AU - Waldenmaier, T.

AU - Wallraff, M.

AU - Walter, M.

AU - Weaver, Ch

AU - Wendt, C.

AU - Westerhoff, S.

AU - Whitehorn, N.

AU - Wiebe, K.

AU - Wiebusch, C. H.

AU - Williams, D. R.

AU - Wischnewski, R.

AU - Wissing, H.

AU - Wolf, M.

AU - Wood, T. R.

AU - Woschnagg, K.

AU - Xu, C.

AU - Xu, D. L.

AU - Xu, X. W.

AU - Yanez, J. P.

AU - Yodh, G.

AU - Yoshida, S.

AU - Zarzhitsky, P.

AU - Zoll, M.

PY - 2012/5/1

Y1 - 2012/5/1

N2 - The IceCube neutrino observatory in operation at the South Pole, Antarctica, comprises three distinct components: a large buried array for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection, a surface air shower array, and a new buried component called DeepCore. DeepCore was designed to lower the IceCube neutrino energy threshold by over an order of magnitude, to energies as low as about 10 GeV. DeepCore is situated primarily 2100 m below the surface of the icecap at the South Pole, at the bottom center of the existing IceCube array, and began taking physics data in May 2010. Its location takes advantage of the exceptionally clear ice at those depths and allows it to use the surrounding IceCube detector as a highly efficient active veto against the principal background of downward-going muons produced in cosmic-ray air showers. DeepCore has a module density roughly five times higher than that of the standard IceCube array, and uses photomultiplier tubes with a new photocathode featuring a quantum efficiency about 35% higher than standard IceCube PMTs. Taken together, these features of DeepCore will increase IceCube's sensitivity to neutrinos from WIMP dark matter annihilations, atmospheric neutrino oscillations, galactic supernova neutrinos, and point sources of neutrinos in the northern and southern skies. In this paper we describe the design and initial performance of DeepCore.

AB - The IceCube neutrino observatory in operation at the South Pole, Antarctica, comprises three distinct components: a large buried array for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection, a surface air shower array, and a new buried component called DeepCore. DeepCore was designed to lower the IceCube neutrino energy threshold by over an order of magnitude, to energies as low as about 10 GeV. DeepCore is situated primarily 2100 m below the surface of the icecap at the South Pole, at the bottom center of the existing IceCube array, and began taking physics data in May 2010. Its location takes advantage of the exceptionally clear ice at those depths and allows it to use the surrounding IceCube detector as a highly efficient active veto against the principal background of downward-going muons produced in cosmic-ray air showers. DeepCore has a module density roughly five times higher than that of the standard IceCube array, and uses photomultiplier tubes with a new photocathode featuring a quantum efficiency about 35% higher than standard IceCube PMTs. Taken together, these features of DeepCore will increase IceCube's sensitivity to neutrinos from WIMP dark matter annihilations, atmospheric neutrino oscillations, galactic supernova neutrinos, and point sources of neutrinos in the northern and southern skies. In this paper we describe the design and initial performance of DeepCore.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84859864845&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84859864845&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2012.01.004

DO - 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2012.01.004

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84859864845

VL - 35

SP - 615

EP - 624

JO - Astroparticle Physics

JF - Astroparticle Physics

SN - 0927-6505

IS - 10

ER -

Abbasi R, Abdou Y, Abu-Zayyad T, Ackermann M, Adams J, Aguilar JA et al. The design and performance of IceCube DeepCore. Astroparticle Physics. 2012 May 1;35(10):615-624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2012.01.004