Abstract

Object. Hydrocephalus has traditionally been quantified by linear measures of ventricular size, with adjunct use cortical mantle thickness. However, clinical outcome depends on cognitive function, which is more directly related to brain volume than these previous measures. The authors sought to quantify the dynamics of brain and ventricular volume growth in normal compared with hydrocephalic mice. Methods. Hydrocephalus was induced in 14-day-old C57BL/6 mice by percutaneous injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna. Nine hydrocephalic and 6 normal mice were serially imaged from age 2-12 weeks with a 14.1-T MR imaging unit. Total brain and ventricle volumes were calculated, and linear discriminant analysis was applied. Results. Two very different patterns of response were seen in hydrocephalic mice compared with mice with normative growth. In one pattern (3 mice) brain growth was normal despite accumulation of CSF, and in the second pattern (6 mice) abnormal brain enlargement was accompanied by increased CSF volume along with parenchymal edema. In this latter pattern, spontaneous ventricular rupture led to normalization of brain volume, implying edema from transmantle pressure gradients. These 2 patterns of hydrocephalus were significantly discriminable using linear discriminant analysis (p < 0.01). In contrast, clinically relevant measurements of head circumference or frontal and occipital horn ratios were unable to discriminate between these patterns. Conclusions. This study is, to the authors' knowledge, the first serial quantification of the growth of brain and ventricle volumes in normal versus hydrocephalic development. The authors' findings demonstrate the feasibility of constructing normative curves of brain and fluid growth as complements to normative head circumference curves. By measuring brain volumes, distinct patterns of brain growth and enlargement can be observed, which are more likely linked to cognitive development and clinical outcome than fluid volumes alone.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2010

Fingerprint

Cerebrospinal Fluid
Brain
Growth
Hydrocephalus
Discriminant Analysis
Edema
Head
Cisterna Magna
Kaolin
Spontaneous Rupture
Inbred C57BL Mouse
Cognition
Pressure
Injections

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

@article{7b365276abbf4373851d5ec77e4e77ef,
title = "The dynamics of brain and cerebrospinal fluid growth in normal versus hydrocephalic mice: Laboratory investigation",
abstract = "Object. Hydrocephalus has traditionally been quantified by linear measures of ventricular size, with adjunct use cortical mantle thickness. However, clinical outcome depends on cognitive function, which is more directly related to brain volume than these previous measures. The authors sought to quantify the dynamics of brain and ventricular volume growth in normal compared with hydrocephalic mice. Methods. Hydrocephalus was induced in 14-day-old C57BL/6 mice by percutaneous injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna. Nine hydrocephalic and 6 normal mice were serially imaged from age 2-12 weeks with a 14.1-T MR imaging unit. Total brain and ventricle volumes were calculated, and linear discriminant analysis was applied. Results. Two very different patterns of response were seen in hydrocephalic mice compared with mice with normative growth. In one pattern (3 mice) brain growth was normal despite accumulation of CSF, and in the second pattern (6 mice) abnormal brain enlargement was accompanied by increased CSF volume along with parenchymal edema. In this latter pattern, spontaneous ventricular rupture led to normalization of brain volume, implying edema from transmantle pressure gradients. These 2 patterns of hydrocephalus were significantly discriminable using linear discriminant analysis (p < 0.01). In contrast, clinically relevant measurements of head circumference or frontal and occipital horn ratios were unable to discriminate between these patterns. Conclusions. This study is, to the authors' knowledge, the first serial quantification of the growth of brain and ventricle volumes in normal versus hydrocephalic development. The authors' findings demonstrate the feasibility of constructing normative curves of brain and fluid growth as complements to normative head circumference curves. By measuring brain volumes, distinct patterns of brain growth and enlargement can be observed, which are more likely linked to cognitive development and clinical outcome than fluid volumes alone.",
author = "Mandell, {Jason G.} and Thomas Neuberger and Drapaca, {Corina S.} and Webb, {Andrew G.} and Schiff, {Steven J.}",
year = "2010",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3171/2010.4.PEDS1014",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "6",
pages = "1--10",
journal = "Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics",
issn = "1933-0707",
publisher = "American Association of Neurological Surgeons",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The dynamics of brain and cerebrospinal fluid growth in normal versus hydrocephalic mice

T2 - Laboratory investigation

AU - Mandell, Jason G.

AU - Neuberger, Thomas

AU - Drapaca, Corina S.

AU - Webb, Andrew G.

AU - Schiff, Steven J.

PY - 2010/7/1

Y1 - 2010/7/1

N2 - Object. Hydrocephalus has traditionally been quantified by linear measures of ventricular size, with adjunct use cortical mantle thickness. However, clinical outcome depends on cognitive function, which is more directly related to brain volume than these previous measures. The authors sought to quantify the dynamics of brain and ventricular volume growth in normal compared with hydrocephalic mice. Methods. Hydrocephalus was induced in 14-day-old C57BL/6 mice by percutaneous injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna. Nine hydrocephalic and 6 normal mice were serially imaged from age 2-12 weeks with a 14.1-T MR imaging unit. Total brain and ventricle volumes were calculated, and linear discriminant analysis was applied. Results. Two very different patterns of response were seen in hydrocephalic mice compared with mice with normative growth. In one pattern (3 mice) brain growth was normal despite accumulation of CSF, and in the second pattern (6 mice) abnormal brain enlargement was accompanied by increased CSF volume along with parenchymal edema. In this latter pattern, spontaneous ventricular rupture led to normalization of brain volume, implying edema from transmantle pressure gradients. These 2 patterns of hydrocephalus were significantly discriminable using linear discriminant analysis (p < 0.01). In contrast, clinically relevant measurements of head circumference or frontal and occipital horn ratios were unable to discriminate between these patterns. Conclusions. This study is, to the authors' knowledge, the first serial quantification of the growth of brain and ventricle volumes in normal versus hydrocephalic development. The authors' findings demonstrate the feasibility of constructing normative curves of brain and fluid growth as complements to normative head circumference curves. By measuring brain volumes, distinct patterns of brain growth and enlargement can be observed, which are more likely linked to cognitive development and clinical outcome than fluid volumes alone.

AB - Object. Hydrocephalus has traditionally been quantified by linear measures of ventricular size, with adjunct use cortical mantle thickness. However, clinical outcome depends on cognitive function, which is more directly related to brain volume than these previous measures. The authors sought to quantify the dynamics of brain and ventricular volume growth in normal compared with hydrocephalic mice. Methods. Hydrocephalus was induced in 14-day-old C57BL/6 mice by percutaneous injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna. Nine hydrocephalic and 6 normal mice were serially imaged from age 2-12 weeks with a 14.1-T MR imaging unit. Total brain and ventricle volumes were calculated, and linear discriminant analysis was applied. Results. Two very different patterns of response were seen in hydrocephalic mice compared with mice with normative growth. In one pattern (3 mice) brain growth was normal despite accumulation of CSF, and in the second pattern (6 mice) abnormal brain enlargement was accompanied by increased CSF volume along with parenchymal edema. In this latter pattern, spontaneous ventricular rupture led to normalization of brain volume, implying edema from transmantle pressure gradients. These 2 patterns of hydrocephalus were significantly discriminable using linear discriminant analysis (p < 0.01). In contrast, clinically relevant measurements of head circumference or frontal and occipital horn ratios were unable to discriminate between these patterns. Conclusions. This study is, to the authors' knowledge, the first serial quantification of the growth of brain and ventricle volumes in normal versus hydrocephalic development. The authors' findings demonstrate the feasibility of constructing normative curves of brain and fluid growth as complements to normative head circumference curves. By measuring brain volumes, distinct patterns of brain growth and enlargement can be observed, which are more likely linked to cognitive development and clinical outcome than fluid volumes alone.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77954378704&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77954378704&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3171/2010.4.PEDS1014

DO - 10.3171/2010.4.PEDS1014

M3 - Article

C2 - 20593980

AN - SCOPUS:77954378704

VL - 6

SP - 1

EP - 10

JO - Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

JF - Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics

SN - 1933-0707

IS - 1

ER -