The effect of flame-wall interactions on the forced response of a lean-premixed, swirl-stabilized flame is experimentally investigated by examining flames in a series of three combustors, each with a different diameter, and therefore a different degree of lateral confinement. The confinement ratios tested are 0.5, 0.37, and 0.29 when calculated using the diameter of the nozzle relative to the combustor diameter. Using both flame images and measured flame transfer functions (FTFs), the effect of confinement is investigated and generalized across a broad range of operating conditions. The major effect of confinement is shown to be a change in flame structure in both the forced and unforced cases. This effect is captured using the parameter Lf,CoHR/Dcomb, which describes the changing degree of flame-wall interaction in each combustor size. The measured FTF data, as a function of confinement, are then generalized by Strouhal number. Data from the two larger combustors are collapsed by multiplying the Strouhal number by the confinement ratio to account for the flow expansion ratio and change in convective velocity within the combustor. Trends at the transfer function extrema are also assessed by examining them in the context of confinement and by using flame images. A change in the fluctuating structure of the flame is also seen to result from an increase in confinement.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Nuclear Energy and Engineering
- Fuel Technology
- Aerospace Engineering
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology
- Mechanical Engineering