During biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression, adipose tissue lipogenesis may be increased through nutrients spared from milk fat synthesis. However, the direct effect of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the indirect effect of spared nutrients on adipose tissue lipogenesis during milk fat depression is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine the direct effect of CLA, spared acetate, and their interaction on adipose tissue lipogenesis using nonlactating dairy cows as an experimental model, which allows separation of the effect of CLA and nutrient sparing. Eight ruminally cannulated, multiparous nonlactating and pregnant Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were CLA and acetate, and treatments were control (CON), rumen acetate infusions (Ac; continuous infusion of 7 mol/d adjusted to pH 6.1 with sodium hydroxide), abomasal infusion of trans-10,cis-12 CLA (CLA; 10 g/d of both trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA), and Ac + CLA (Ac + CLA). Dry matter intake was not affected by Ac, but tended to decrease by CLA. Plasma trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration as a percentage of fatty acids was increased by 0.3 percentage points by CLA. No treatment effect was observed on plasma glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate, but an interaction was observed of CLA and Ac on plasma insulin and nonesterified fatty acids. Insulin was increased 24% by CLA, but not by Ac + CLA, and nonesterified fatty acids were increased 55% by Ac + CLA, but not by CLA alone. Lipogenesis and oxidation capacity of adipose tissue explants were not affected by treatments. Adipose expression of key lipogenic factors (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 and sterol response element binding protein 1c) were reduced by CLA, by the interaction of Ac and CLA (sterol response element binding protein 1c), and tended to be reduced with Ac (S14 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ1). Expression of several adipose lipogenic enzymes (fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1) was reduced by CLA and Ac. An interaction was observed of Ac and CLA for fatty acid binding protein 4, which was decreased by Ac, but not Ac + CLA. In conclusion, in the nonlactating cow, adipose tissue is sensitive to the anti-lipogenic effects of trans-10,cis-12 CLA at the transcription level and acetate does not stimulate lipogenesis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Animal Science and Zoology