Lipids and lipoproteins are major targets for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Findings from a limited number of clinical trials suggest diet-induced atherogenic lipoprotein lowering can be altered in the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation or insulin resistance. This review summarizes results from randomized controlled trials that have examined diet-induced changes in lipids/lipoproteins by inflammatory or insulin sensitivity status. In addition, mechanisms to explain these clinical observations are explored. Post hoc analyses of data from a limited number of randomized controlled trials suggest attenuation of diet-induced lipid/lipoprotein lowering in individuals with inflammation and/or insulin resistance. These findings are supported by experimental studies showing that inflammatory stimuli and hyperinsulinemia alter genes involved in endogenous cholesterol synthesis and cholesterol uptake, reduce cholesterol efflux, and increase fatty acid biosynthesis. Further a priori defined research is required to better characterize how chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance modulate lipid and lipoprotein responsiveness to guide CVD risk reduction in individuals presenting with these phenotypes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Food Science
- Nutrition and Dietetics