The effect of lithology and agriculture at the susquehanna shale hills critical zone observatory

Li Li, Roman Alexander Dibiase, Joanmarie Del Vecchio, Virginia Marcon, Beth Hoagland, Dacheng Xiao, Callum Wayman, Qicheng Tang, Yuting He, Perri Silverhart, Ismaiel Szink, Brandon Robert Forsythe, Jennifer Zan Williams, Danny Shapich, Gregory J. Mount, Jason Philip Kaye, Li Guo, Hangsheng Lin, David Eissenstat, Ashlee DereKristen Brubaker, Margot Wilkinson Kaye, Kenneth James Davis, Tess Alethea Russo, Susan Louise Brantley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The footprint of the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory was expanded in 2013 from the forested Shale Hills subcatchment (0.08 km2) to most of Shavers Creek watershed (163 km2) in an effort to understand the interactions among water, energy, gas, solute, and sediment. The main stem of Shavers Creek is now monitored, and instrumentation has been installed in two new subcatch-ments: Garner Run and Cole Farm. Garner Run is a pristine forested site underlain by sandstone, whereas Cole Farm is a cultivated site on calcareous shale. We describe preliminary data and insights about how the critical zone has evolved on sites of different lithology, vegetation, and land use. A notable conceptual model that has emerged is the “two water table” concept. Despite differences in critical zone architecture, we found evidence in each catchment of a shallow and a deep water table, with the former defined by shallow interflow and the latter defined by deeper groundwater flow through weathered and fractured bedrock. We show that the shallow and deep waters have distinct chemical signatures. The proportion of contribution from each water type to stream discharge plays a key role in determining how concentrations, including nutrients, vary as a function of stream discharge. This illustrates the benefits of the critical zone observatory approach: having common sites to grapple with cross-disciplinary research questions, to integrate diverse datasets, and to support model development that ultimately enables the development of powerful conceptual and numerical frameworks for large-scale hindcasting and forecasting capabilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number180063
JournalVadose Zone Journal
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2018

Fingerprint

shale
lithology
observatory
agriculture
water table
deep water
farm
hindcasting
subwatersheds
farms
subsurface flow
groundwater flow
instrumentation
bedrock
sandstone
footprint
solutes
solute
shallow water
nutrient content

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Soil Science

Cite this

Li, Li ; Dibiase, Roman Alexander ; Vecchio, Joanmarie Del ; Marcon, Virginia ; Hoagland, Beth ; Xiao, Dacheng ; Wayman, Callum ; Tang, Qicheng ; He, Yuting ; Silverhart, Perri ; Szink, Ismaiel ; Forsythe, Brandon Robert ; Williams, Jennifer Zan ; Shapich, Danny ; Mount, Gregory J. ; Kaye, Jason Philip ; Guo, Li ; Lin, Hangsheng ; Eissenstat, David ; Dere, Ashlee ; Brubaker, Kristen ; Kaye, Margot Wilkinson ; Davis, Kenneth James ; Russo, Tess Alethea ; Brantley, Susan Louise. / The effect of lithology and agriculture at the susquehanna shale hills critical zone observatory. In: Vadose Zone Journal. 2018 ; Vol. 17, No. 1.
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abstract = "The footprint of the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory was expanded in 2013 from the forested Shale Hills subcatchment (0.08 km2) to most of Shavers Creek watershed (163 km2) in an effort to understand the interactions among water, energy, gas, solute, and sediment. The main stem of Shavers Creek is now monitored, and instrumentation has been installed in two new subcatch-ments: Garner Run and Cole Farm. Garner Run is a pristine forested site underlain by sandstone, whereas Cole Farm is a cultivated site on calcareous shale. We describe preliminary data and insights about how the critical zone has evolved on sites of different lithology, vegetation, and land use. A notable conceptual model that has emerged is the “two water table” concept. Despite differences in critical zone architecture, we found evidence in each catchment of a shallow and a deep water table, with the former defined by shallow interflow and the latter defined by deeper groundwater flow through weathered and fractured bedrock. We show that the shallow and deep waters have distinct chemical signatures. The proportion of contribution from each water type to stream discharge plays a key role in determining how concentrations, including nutrients, vary as a function of stream discharge. This illustrates the benefits of the critical zone observatory approach: having common sites to grapple with cross-disciplinary research questions, to integrate diverse datasets, and to support model development that ultimately enables the development of powerful conceptual and numerical frameworks for large-scale hindcasting and forecasting capabilities.",
author = "Li Li and Dibiase, {Roman Alexander} and Vecchio, {Joanmarie Del} and Virginia Marcon and Beth Hoagland and Dacheng Xiao and Callum Wayman and Qicheng Tang and Yuting He and Perri Silverhart and Ismaiel Szink and Forsythe, {Brandon Robert} and Williams, {Jennifer Zan} and Danny Shapich and Mount, {Gregory J.} and Kaye, {Jason Philip} and Li Guo and Hangsheng Lin and David Eissenstat and Ashlee Dere and Kristen Brubaker and Kaye, {Margot Wilkinson} and Davis, {Kenneth James} and Russo, {Tess Alethea} and Brantley, {Susan Louise}",
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The effect of lithology and agriculture at the susquehanna shale hills critical zone observatory. / Li, Li; Dibiase, Roman Alexander; Vecchio, Joanmarie Del; Marcon, Virginia; Hoagland, Beth; Xiao, Dacheng; Wayman, Callum; Tang, Qicheng; He, Yuting; Silverhart, Perri; Szink, Ismaiel; Forsythe, Brandon Robert; Williams, Jennifer Zan; Shapich, Danny; Mount, Gregory J.; Kaye, Jason Philip; Guo, Li; Lin, Hangsheng; Eissenstat, David; Dere, Ashlee; Brubaker, Kristen; Kaye, Margot Wilkinson; Davis, Kenneth James; Russo, Tess Alethea; Brantley, Susan Louise.

In: Vadose Zone Journal, Vol. 17, No. 1, 180063, 01.02.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - The effect of lithology and agriculture at the susquehanna shale hills critical zone observatory

AU - Li, Li

AU - Dibiase, Roman Alexander

AU - Vecchio, Joanmarie Del

AU - Marcon, Virginia

AU - Hoagland, Beth

AU - Xiao, Dacheng

AU - Wayman, Callum

AU - Tang, Qicheng

AU - He, Yuting

AU - Silverhart, Perri

AU - Szink, Ismaiel

AU - Forsythe, Brandon Robert

AU - Williams, Jennifer Zan

AU - Shapich, Danny

AU - Mount, Gregory J.

AU - Kaye, Jason Philip

AU - Guo, Li

AU - Lin, Hangsheng

AU - Eissenstat, David

AU - Dere, Ashlee

AU - Brubaker, Kristen

AU - Kaye, Margot Wilkinson

AU - Davis, Kenneth James

AU - Russo, Tess Alethea

AU - Brantley, Susan Louise

PY - 2018/2/1

Y1 - 2018/2/1

N2 - The footprint of the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory was expanded in 2013 from the forested Shale Hills subcatchment (0.08 km2) to most of Shavers Creek watershed (163 km2) in an effort to understand the interactions among water, energy, gas, solute, and sediment. The main stem of Shavers Creek is now monitored, and instrumentation has been installed in two new subcatch-ments: Garner Run and Cole Farm. Garner Run is a pristine forested site underlain by sandstone, whereas Cole Farm is a cultivated site on calcareous shale. We describe preliminary data and insights about how the critical zone has evolved on sites of different lithology, vegetation, and land use. A notable conceptual model that has emerged is the “two water table” concept. Despite differences in critical zone architecture, we found evidence in each catchment of a shallow and a deep water table, with the former defined by shallow interflow and the latter defined by deeper groundwater flow through weathered and fractured bedrock. We show that the shallow and deep waters have distinct chemical signatures. The proportion of contribution from each water type to stream discharge plays a key role in determining how concentrations, including nutrients, vary as a function of stream discharge. This illustrates the benefits of the critical zone observatory approach: having common sites to grapple with cross-disciplinary research questions, to integrate diverse datasets, and to support model development that ultimately enables the development of powerful conceptual and numerical frameworks for large-scale hindcasting and forecasting capabilities.

AB - The footprint of the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory was expanded in 2013 from the forested Shale Hills subcatchment (0.08 km2) to most of Shavers Creek watershed (163 km2) in an effort to understand the interactions among water, energy, gas, solute, and sediment. The main stem of Shavers Creek is now monitored, and instrumentation has been installed in two new subcatch-ments: Garner Run and Cole Farm. Garner Run is a pristine forested site underlain by sandstone, whereas Cole Farm is a cultivated site on calcareous shale. We describe preliminary data and insights about how the critical zone has evolved on sites of different lithology, vegetation, and land use. A notable conceptual model that has emerged is the “two water table” concept. Despite differences in critical zone architecture, we found evidence in each catchment of a shallow and a deep water table, with the former defined by shallow interflow and the latter defined by deeper groundwater flow through weathered and fractured bedrock. We show that the shallow and deep waters have distinct chemical signatures. The proportion of contribution from each water type to stream discharge plays a key role in determining how concentrations, including nutrients, vary as a function of stream discharge. This illustrates the benefits of the critical zone observatory approach: having common sites to grapple with cross-disciplinary research questions, to integrate diverse datasets, and to support model development that ultimately enables the development of powerful conceptual and numerical frameworks for large-scale hindcasting and forecasting capabilities.

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