The effect of loading rate on static friction and the rate of fault healing during the earthquake cycle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

214 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The seismic cycle requires that faults strengthen (heal) between earthquakes, and the rate of this healing process plays a key role in determining earthquake stress drop, rupture characteristics and seismic scaling relations. Frictional healing (as evidenced by increasing static friction during quasi-stationary contact between two surfaces is considered the mechanism most likely to be responsible for fault strengthening. Previous studies, however, have shown a large discrepancy between laboratory and seismic (field) estimates of the healing rate; in the laboratory, rock friction changes by only a few per cent per order-of-magnitude change in slip rate, whereas seismic stress drop increases by a factor of 2 to 5 per order- of-magnitude increase in earthquake recurrence interval. But in such comparisons, it is assumed that healing and static friction are independent of loading rate. Here, I summarize laboratory measurements showing that static friction and healing vary with loading rate and time, as expected from friction theory. Applying these results to seismic faulting and accounting for differences in laboratory, seismic and tectonic slip rates, I demonstrate that post-seismic healing is expected to be retarded for a period of several hundred days following an earthquake, in agreement with recent findings from repeating earthquakes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-72
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume391
Issue number6662
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1998

Fingerprint

Earthquakes
Friction
Rupture
Recurrence

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)
  • General

Cite this

@article{c12137b3f9744b04ba0fd8a3bef5f6b8,
title = "The effect of loading rate on static friction and the rate of fault healing during the earthquake cycle",
abstract = "The seismic cycle requires that faults strengthen (heal) between earthquakes, and the rate of this healing process plays a key role in determining earthquake stress drop, rupture characteristics and seismic scaling relations. Frictional healing (as evidenced by increasing static friction during quasi-stationary contact between two surfaces is considered the mechanism most likely to be responsible for fault strengthening. Previous studies, however, have shown a large discrepancy between laboratory and seismic (field) estimates of the healing rate; in the laboratory, rock friction changes by only a few per cent per order-of-magnitude change in slip rate, whereas seismic stress drop increases by a factor of 2 to 5 per order- of-magnitude increase in earthquake recurrence interval. But in such comparisons, it is assumed that healing and static friction are independent of loading rate. Here, I summarize laboratory measurements showing that static friction and healing vary with loading rate and time, as expected from friction theory. Applying these results to seismic faulting and accounting for differences in laboratory, seismic and tectonic slip rates, I demonstrate that post-seismic healing is expected to be retarded for a period of several hundred days following an earthquake, in agreement with recent findings from repeating earthquakes.",
author = "Marone, {Chris J.}",
year = "1998",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1038/34157",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "391",
pages = "69--72",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "6662",

}

The effect of loading rate on static friction and the rate of fault healing during the earthquake cycle. / Marone, Chris J.

In: Nature, Vol. 391, No. 6662, 01.01.1998, p. 69-72.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effect of loading rate on static friction and the rate of fault healing during the earthquake cycle

AU - Marone, Chris J.

PY - 1998/1/1

Y1 - 1998/1/1

N2 - The seismic cycle requires that faults strengthen (heal) between earthquakes, and the rate of this healing process plays a key role in determining earthquake stress drop, rupture characteristics and seismic scaling relations. Frictional healing (as evidenced by increasing static friction during quasi-stationary contact between two surfaces is considered the mechanism most likely to be responsible for fault strengthening. Previous studies, however, have shown a large discrepancy between laboratory and seismic (field) estimates of the healing rate; in the laboratory, rock friction changes by only a few per cent per order-of-magnitude change in slip rate, whereas seismic stress drop increases by a factor of 2 to 5 per order- of-magnitude increase in earthquake recurrence interval. But in such comparisons, it is assumed that healing and static friction are independent of loading rate. Here, I summarize laboratory measurements showing that static friction and healing vary with loading rate and time, as expected from friction theory. Applying these results to seismic faulting and accounting for differences in laboratory, seismic and tectonic slip rates, I demonstrate that post-seismic healing is expected to be retarded for a period of several hundred days following an earthquake, in agreement with recent findings from repeating earthquakes.

AB - The seismic cycle requires that faults strengthen (heal) between earthquakes, and the rate of this healing process plays a key role in determining earthquake stress drop, rupture characteristics and seismic scaling relations. Frictional healing (as evidenced by increasing static friction during quasi-stationary contact between two surfaces is considered the mechanism most likely to be responsible for fault strengthening. Previous studies, however, have shown a large discrepancy between laboratory and seismic (field) estimates of the healing rate; in the laboratory, rock friction changes by only a few per cent per order-of-magnitude change in slip rate, whereas seismic stress drop increases by a factor of 2 to 5 per order- of-magnitude increase in earthquake recurrence interval. But in such comparisons, it is assumed that healing and static friction are independent of loading rate. Here, I summarize laboratory measurements showing that static friction and healing vary with loading rate and time, as expected from friction theory. Applying these results to seismic faulting and accounting for differences in laboratory, seismic and tectonic slip rates, I demonstrate that post-seismic healing is expected to be retarded for a period of several hundred days following an earthquake, in agreement with recent findings from repeating earthquakes.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031888403&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031888403&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/34157

DO - 10.1038/34157

M3 - Article

VL - 391

SP - 69

EP - 72

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 6662

ER -