The effect of walnut intake on factors related to prostate and vascular health in older men

Kim J. Spaccarotella, Penny Margaret Kris-Etherton, William L. Stone, Deborah M. Bagshaw, Valerie K. Fishell, Sheila Grace West, Frank R. Lawrence, Terryl Johnson Hartman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background. Tocopherols may protect against prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. We assessed the effect of walnuts, which are rich in tocopherols, on markers of prostate and vascular health in men at risk for prostate cancer. We conducted an 8-week walnut supplement study to examine effects of walnuts on serum tocopherols and prostate specific antigen (PSA). Subjects (n = 21) consumed (in random order) their usual diet +/- a walnut supplement (75 g/d) that was isocalorically incorporated in their habitual diets. Prior to the supplement study, 5 fasted subjects participated in an acute timecourse experiment and had blood taken at baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after consuming walnuts (75 g). Results. During the timecourse experiment, triglycerides peaked at 4 h, and gamma-tocopherol (γ-T) increased from 4 to 8 h. Triglyceride - normalized γ-T was two-fold higher (P = 0.01) after 8 versus 4 h. In the supplement study, change from baseline was +0.83 ± 0.52 μmol/L for γ-T, -2.65 ± 1.30 μmol/L for alpha-tocopherol (α-T) and -3.49 ± 1.99 for the tocopherol ratio (α-T: γ-T). A linear mixed model showed that, although PSA did not change, the ratio of free PSA:total PSA increased and approached significance (P = 0.07). The α-T: γ-T ratio decreased significantly (P = 0.01), partly reflecting an increase in serum γ-T, which approached significance (P = 0.08). Conclusion. The significant decrease in the α-T: γ-T ratio with an increase in serum γ-T and a trend towards an increase in the ratio of free PSA:total PSA following the 8-week supplement study suggest that walnuts may improve biomarkers of prostate and vascular status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number13
JournalNutrition Journal
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 12 2008

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Juglans
Prostate-Specific Antigen
Blood Vessels
Prostate
Tocopherols
Health
Prostatic Neoplasms
Triglycerides
Serum
gamma-Tocopherol
Diet
Men's Health
alpha-Tocopherol
Linear Models
Cardiovascular Diseases
Biomarkers

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Spaccarotella, Kim J. ; Kris-Etherton, Penny Margaret ; Stone, William L. ; Bagshaw, Deborah M. ; Fishell, Valerie K. ; West, Sheila Grace ; Lawrence, Frank R. ; Hartman, Terryl Johnson. / The effect of walnut intake on factors related to prostate and vascular health in older men. In: Nutrition Journal. 2008 ; Vol. 7, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background. Tocopherols may protect against prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. We assessed the effect of walnuts, which are rich in tocopherols, on markers of prostate and vascular health in men at risk for prostate cancer. We conducted an 8-week walnut supplement study to examine effects of walnuts on serum tocopherols and prostate specific antigen (PSA). Subjects (n = 21) consumed (in random order) their usual diet +/- a walnut supplement (75 g/d) that was isocalorically incorporated in their habitual diets. Prior to the supplement study, 5 fasted subjects participated in an acute timecourse experiment and had blood taken at baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after consuming walnuts (75 g). Results. During the timecourse experiment, triglycerides peaked at 4 h, and gamma-tocopherol (γ-T) increased from 4 to 8 h. Triglyceride - normalized γ-T was two-fold higher (P = 0.01) after 8 versus 4 h. In the supplement study, change from baseline was +0.83 ± 0.52 μmol/L for γ-T, -2.65 ± 1.30 μmol/L for alpha-tocopherol (α-T) and -3.49 ± 1.99 for the tocopherol ratio (α-T: γ-T). A linear mixed model showed that, although PSA did not change, the ratio of free PSA:total PSA increased and approached significance (P = 0.07). The α-T: γ-T ratio decreased significantly (P = 0.01), partly reflecting an increase in serum γ-T, which approached significance (P = 0.08). Conclusion. The significant decrease in the α-T: γ-T ratio with an increase in serum γ-T and a trend towards an increase in the ratio of free PSA:total PSA following the 8-week supplement study suggest that walnuts may improve biomarkers of prostate and vascular status.",
author = "Spaccarotella, {Kim J.} and Kris-Etherton, {Penny Margaret} and Stone, {William L.} and Bagshaw, {Deborah M.} and Fishell, {Valerie K.} and West, {Sheila Grace} and Lawrence, {Frank R.} and Hartman, {Terryl Johnson}",
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The effect of walnut intake on factors related to prostate and vascular health in older men. / Spaccarotella, Kim J.; Kris-Etherton, Penny Margaret; Stone, William L.; Bagshaw, Deborah M.; Fishell, Valerie K.; West, Sheila Grace; Lawrence, Frank R.; Hartman, Terryl Johnson.

In: Nutrition Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, 13, 12.06.2008.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effect of walnut intake on factors related to prostate and vascular health in older men

AU - Spaccarotella, Kim J.

AU - Kris-Etherton, Penny Margaret

AU - Stone, William L.

AU - Bagshaw, Deborah M.

AU - Fishell, Valerie K.

AU - West, Sheila Grace

AU - Lawrence, Frank R.

AU - Hartman, Terryl Johnson

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N2 - Background. Tocopherols may protect against prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. We assessed the effect of walnuts, which are rich in tocopherols, on markers of prostate and vascular health in men at risk for prostate cancer. We conducted an 8-week walnut supplement study to examine effects of walnuts on serum tocopherols and prostate specific antigen (PSA). Subjects (n = 21) consumed (in random order) their usual diet +/- a walnut supplement (75 g/d) that was isocalorically incorporated in their habitual diets. Prior to the supplement study, 5 fasted subjects participated in an acute timecourse experiment and had blood taken at baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after consuming walnuts (75 g). Results. During the timecourse experiment, triglycerides peaked at 4 h, and gamma-tocopherol (γ-T) increased from 4 to 8 h. Triglyceride - normalized γ-T was two-fold higher (P = 0.01) after 8 versus 4 h. In the supplement study, change from baseline was +0.83 ± 0.52 μmol/L for γ-T, -2.65 ± 1.30 μmol/L for alpha-tocopherol (α-T) and -3.49 ± 1.99 for the tocopherol ratio (α-T: γ-T). A linear mixed model showed that, although PSA did not change, the ratio of free PSA:total PSA increased and approached significance (P = 0.07). The α-T: γ-T ratio decreased significantly (P = 0.01), partly reflecting an increase in serum γ-T, which approached significance (P = 0.08). Conclusion. The significant decrease in the α-T: γ-T ratio with an increase in serum γ-T and a trend towards an increase in the ratio of free PSA:total PSA following the 8-week supplement study suggest that walnuts may improve biomarkers of prostate and vascular status.

AB - Background. Tocopherols may protect against prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. We assessed the effect of walnuts, which are rich in tocopherols, on markers of prostate and vascular health in men at risk for prostate cancer. We conducted an 8-week walnut supplement study to examine effects of walnuts on serum tocopherols and prostate specific antigen (PSA). Subjects (n = 21) consumed (in random order) their usual diet +/- a walnut supplement (75 g/d) that was isocalorically incorporated in their habitual diets. Prior to the supplement study, 5 fasted subjects participated in an acute timecourse experiment and had blood taken at baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after consuming walnuts (75 g). Results. During the timecourse experiment, triglycerides peaked at 4 h, and gamma-tocopherol (γ-T) increased from 4 to 8 h. Triglyceride - normalized γ-T was two-fold higher (P = 0.01) after 8 versus 4 h. In the supplement study, change from baseline was +0.83 ± 0.52 μmol/L for γ-T, -2.65 ± 1.30 μmol/L for alpha-tocopherol (α-T) and -3.49 ± 1.99 for the tocopherol ratio (α-T: γ-T). A linear mixed model showed that, although PSA did not change, the ratio of free PSA:total PSA increased and approached significance (P = 0.07). The α-T: γ-T ratio decreased significantly (P = 0.01), partly reflecting an increase in serum γ-T, which approached significance (P = 0.08). Conclusion. The significant decrease in the α-T: γ-T ratio with an increase in serum γ-T and a trend towards an increase in the ratio of free PSA:total PSA following the 8-week supplement study suggest that walnuts may improve biomarkers of prostate and vascular status.

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