The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide at a dramatic rate, accompanied by an associated increase in comorbid conditions. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass being the most commonly performed procedure, yet the underlying mechanisms by which it induces a wide-array of beneficial effects remains obscure. From basic science as well as clinical standpoints, there are several areas of current interest that warrant continued investigation. Several major focus areas have also emerged in current research that may guide future efforts in this field, particularly with regards to using novel, non-surgical approaches to mimic the success of bariatric surgery while minimizing its adverse side effects.
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