This paper experimentally investigates the effect of high freestream turbulence intensity, turbulence length scale, and exit Reynolds number on the surface heat transfer distribution of a turbine blade at realistic engine Mach numbers. Passive turbulence grids were used to generate freestream turbulence levels of 2%, 12%, and 14% at the cascade inlet. The turbulence grids produced length scales normalized by the blade pitch of 0.02, 0.26, and 0.41, respectively. Surface heat transfer measurements were made at the midspan of the blade using thin film gauges. Experiments were performed at exit Mach numbers of 0.55, 0.78 and 1.03 which represent flow conditions below, near, and above nominal conditions. The exit Mach numbers tested correspond to exit Reynolds numbers of 6 × 105, 8 × 105, and 11 × 105, based on true chord. The experimental results showed that the high freestream turbulence augmented the heat transfer on both the pressure and suction sides of the blade as compared to the low freestream turbulence case. At nominal conditions, exit Mach 0.78, average heat transfer augmentations of 23% and 35% were observed on the pressure side and suction side of the blade, respectively.