The effects of imagery-manipulated appraisal on intensity and direction of competitive anxiety

Bruce Donald Hale, Adam Whitehouse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

44 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study attempted to manipulate an athlete's facilitative or debilitative appraisal (direction; Jones, 1995) of competitive anxiety through imagery-based interventions in order to study the effects on subsequent anxiety intensity (heart rate and CSAI-2) and direction (CSAI-2D; Jones & Swain, 1992). In a within-subjects' design, 24 experienced soccer players were relaxed via progressive relaxation audiotape and then randomly underwent an imagery-based video-and audiotaped manipulation of their appraisal of taking a hypothetical game-winning penalty kick under either a "pressure" or "challenge" appraisal emphasis. There was no significant effect for heart rate. A repeated measures MANOVA for CSAI-2 and CSAI-2D scores revealed that for both intensity and direction scores the challenge condition produced less cognitive anxiety, less somatic anxiety, and more self-confidence (all p < .001) than the pressure situation. This finding suggests that a challenge appraisal manipulation taught by applied sport psychologists might benefit athletes' performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)40-51
Number of pages12
JournalSport Psychologist
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1998

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Applied Psychology

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