Background: People with cognitive impairment have been shown to engage in few structured activities. During periods of unoccupied time or boredom, these patients most likely manifest neuropsychiatric symptoms. Objective: The purposes of this study were to (1) describe the leisure-activity indicators (variety in leisure activities, appraisal of each activity's restorative function, and leisure dysfunction, i.e. failure to appreciate the importance of restorative aspects of leisure activity), of community-dwelling older Taiwanese adults with cognitive impairment, and (2) explore the relationships between these indicators and neuropsychiatric symptoms in this population. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Memory disorder and geriatric psychiatric clinics of two hospitals in northern Taiwan. Participants: Patient-family caregiver dyads (N=60). Method: Patients' dementia severity, based on Clinical Dementia Rating scores, was 0.5-2.0.Family caregivers completed the Chinese Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess patients' behavioral problems and the Restorative Activity Questionnaire to assess patients' participation in leisure activities, restorative experience, and leisure dysfunction. Results: On average, patients participated in approximately five individual leisure activities, but very few group leisure activities. The top three leisure activities were watching TV, taking a walk, and talking to relatives and friends. The leisure activities in which participants least commonly engaged were fishing, attending cultural exhibitions, and chess/card playing. All leisure-activity indicators were significantly correlated with disease stage, global cognitive function, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Two leisure-activity indicators (leisure dysfunction and restorative experiences) were significantly correlated with depressive symptoms. Only leisure dysfunction significantly and consistently predicted neuropsychiatric symptoms. Conclusion: These results can be used by home health or community health nurses to design tailored leisure-activity plans for improving the care quality of patients with cognitive impairment. Health professionals can develop leisure-education programmes to emphasize the value of leisure pursuit and to modify attitudes toward participating in leisure activities. Finally, parks and recreational agencies may re-examine their services and facilities to meet the increasing needs of this population.
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