Gastrointestinal malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC), pancreatic cancer, and esophageal cancer, have been classically seen as genetic diseases, involving mutations and/or deletions in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Recent evidence demonstrates that epigenetic changes coexist with these genetic changes and contribute to the malignant phenotype. This review will focus on epigenetic dysregulation in gastrointestinal malignancies involving multiple mechanisms of epigenetic control. Interactions between studied epigenetic alterations and genetic alterations are common.
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