In spite of increased automation, there is still a need for muscular power and for manual tools in the modem consumer and industrial environment Yet, although the concepts of human performance and ergonomic efficiency have been applied to various industrial tasks in recent years, they have been neglected in the design of many tools, especially shovels and spades. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to ascertain the extent to which, in the past, ergonomic principles have been applied to the task of shovelling and to the design of the shovel itself. Those design aspects which have been previously neglected, but could possible lead to improved shovelling efficiency, are outlined as a guide for further research.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Human Factors and Ergonomics
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation