The evolution of a jet ejection of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg II X-1

D. Cseh, J. C.A. Miller-Jones, P. G. Jonker, Fabien Grise, Z. Paragi, S. Corbel, H. Falcke, S. Frey, P. Kaaret, E. Körding

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We present quasi-simultaneous, multi-epoch radio and X-ray measurements of Holmberg II X-1 using the European VLBI Network (EVN), the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), and the Chandra and Swift X-ray telescopes. The X-ray data show apparently hard spectra with steady X-ray luminosities four months apart from each other. In the high-resolution EVN radio observations, we have detected an extended milliarcsecond scale source with unboosted radio emission. The source emits non-thermal, likely optically thin synchrotron emission, and its morphology is consistent with a jet ejection. The 9-GHz VLA data show an arcsecond-scale triple structure of Holmberg II X-1 similar to that seen at lower frequencies. However, we find that the central ejection has faded by at least a factor of 7.3 over 1.5 yr. We estimate the dynamical age of the ejection to be higher than 2.1 yr. We show that such a rapid cooling can be explained with simple adiabatic expansion losses. These properties of Holmberg II X-1 imply that ULX radio bubbles may be inflated by ejecta instead of self-absorbed compact jets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)24-31
Number of pages8
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume452
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 28 2015

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ejection
radio
very long base interferometry
Very Large Array (VLA)
very long baseline interferometry
x rays
radio observation
ejecta
radio emission
bubble
synchrotrons
bubbles
luminosity
time measurement
telescopes
low frequencies
cooling
expansion
high resolution
estimates

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Cseh, D. ; Miller-Jones, J. C.A. ; Jonker, P. G. ; Grise, Fabien ; Paragi, Z. ; Corbel, S. ; Falcke, H. ; Frey, S. ; Kaaret, P. ; Körding, E. / The evolution of a jet ejection of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg II X-1. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2015 ; Vol. 452, No. 1. pp. 24-31.
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Cseh, D, Miller-Jones, JCA, Jonker, PG, Grise, F, Paragi, Z, Corbel, S, Falcke, H, Frey, S, Kaaret, P & Körding, E 2015, 'The evolution of a jet ejection of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg II X-1', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 452, no. 1, pp. 24-31. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stv1308

The evolution of a jet ejection of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg II X-1. / Cseh, D.; Miller-Jones, J. C.A.; Jonker, P. G.; Grise, Fabien; Paragi, Z.; Corbel, S.; Falcke, H.; Frey, S.; Kaaret, P.; Körding, E.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 452, No. 1, 28.04.2015, p. 24-31.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Miller-Jones, J. C.A.

AU - Jonker, P. G.

AU - Grise, Fabien

AU - Paragi, Z.

AU - Corbel, S.

AU - Falcke, H.

AU - Frey, S.

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AU - Körding, E.

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N2 - We present quasi-simultaneous, multi-epoch radio and X-ray measurements of Holmberg II X-1 using the European VLBI Network (EVN), the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), and the Chandra and Swift X-ray telescopes. The X-ray data show apparently hard spectra with steady X-ray luminosities four months apart from each other. In the high-resolution EVN radio observations, we have detected an extended milliarcsecond scale source with unboosted radio emission. The source emits non-thermal, likely optically thin synchrotron emission, and its morphology is consistent with a jet ejection. The 9-GHz VLA data show an arcsecond-scale triple structure of Holmberg II X-1 similar to that seen at lower frequencies. However, we find that the central ejection has faded by at least a factor of 7.3 over 1.5 yr. We estimate the dynamical age of the ejection to be higher than 2.1 yr. We show that such a rapid cooling can be explained with simple adiabatic expansion losses. These properties of Holmberg II X-1 imply that ULX radio bubbles may be inflated by ejecta instead of self-absorbed compact jets.

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