THE EVOLUTION of NORMAL GALAXY X-RAY EMISSION THROUGH COSMIC HISTORY: CONSTRAINTS from the 6 MS CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH

B. D. Lehmer, A. R. Basu-Zych, S. Mineo, W. N. Brandt, R. T. Eufrasio, T. Fragos, A. E. Hornschemeier, B. Luo, Y. Q. Xue, F. E. Bauer, M. Gilfanov, P. Ranalli, D. P. Schneider, O. Shemmer, P. Tozzi, J. R. Trump, C. Vignali, J. X. Wang, M. Yukita, A. Zezas

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Abstract

We present measurements of the evolution of normal-galaxy X-ray emission from z 0-7 using local galaxies and galaxy samples in the 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The majority of the CDF-S galaxies are observed at rest-frame energies above 2 keV, where the emission is expected to be dominated by X-ray binary (XRB) populations; however, hot gas is expected to provide small contributions to the observed-frame 1 keV emission at z 1. We show that a single scaling relation between X-ray luminosity (LX) and star-formation rate (SFR) literature, is insufficient for characterizing the average X-ray emission at all redshifts. We establish that scaling relations involving not only SFR, but also stellar mass (M?) and redshift, provide significantly improved characterizations of the average X-ray emission from normal galaxy populations at z 0-7. We further provide the first empirical constraints on the redshift evolution of X-ray emission from both low-mass XRB (LMXB) and high-mass XRB (HMXB) populations and their scalings with M? and SFR, respectively. We find L2 10 keV - (LMXB)/M z μ + (1+z )2-3 - and L2 10 keV - (HMXB)/SFR+ (1 z), and show that these relations are consistent with XRB population-synthesis model predictions, which attribute the increase in LMXB and HMXB scaling relations with redshift as being due to declining host galaxy stellar ages and metallicities, respectively. We discuss how emission from XRBs could provide an important source of heating to the intergalactic medium in the early universe, exceeding that of active galactic nuclei.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume825
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016

Fingerprint

COSMIC
histories
galaxies
history
star formation rate
x rays
scaling
intergalactic media
high temperature gases
stellar mass
active galactic nuclei
metallicity
universe
luminosity
heating

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Lehmer, B. D. ; Basu-Zych, A. R. ; Mineo, S. ; Brandt, W. N. ; Eufrasio, R. T. ; Fragos, T. ; Hornschemeier, A. E. ; Luo, B. ; Xue, Y. Q. ; Bauer, F. E. ; Gilfanov, M. ; Ranalli, P. ; Schneider, D. P. ; Shemmer, O. ; Tozzi, P. ; Trump, J. R. ; Vignali, C. ; Wang, J. X. ; Yukita, M. ; Zezas, A. / THE EVOLUTION of NORMAL GALAXY X-RAY EMISSION THROUGH COSMIC HISTORY : CONSTRAINTS from the 6 MS CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2016 ; Vol. 825, No. 1.
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abstract = "We present measurements of the evolution of normal-galaxy X-ray emission from z 0-7 using local galaxies and galaxy samples in the 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The majority of the CDF-S galaxies are observed at rest-frame energies above 2 keV, where the emission is expected to be dominated by X-ray binary (XRB) populations; however, hot gas is expected to provide small contributions to the observed-frame 1 keV emission at z 1. We show that a single scaling relation between X-ray luminosity (LX) and star-formation rate (SFR) literature, is insufficient for characterizing the average X-ray emission at all redshifts. We establish that scaling relations involving not only SFR, but also stellar mass (M?) and redshift, provide significantly improved characterizations of the average X-ray emission from normal galaxy populations at z 0-7. We further provide the first empirical constraints on the redshift evolution of X-ray emission from both low-mass XRB (LMXB) and high-mass XRB (HMXB) populations and their scalings with M? and SFR, respectively. We find L2 10 keV - (LMXB)/M z ∗ μ + (1+z )2-3 - and L2 10 keV - (HMXB)/SFR+ (1 z), and show that these relations are consistent with XRB population-synthesis model predictions, which attribute the increase in LMXB and HMXB scaling relations with redshift as being due to declining host galaxy stellar ages and metallicities, respectively. We discuss how emission from XRBs could provide an important source of heating to the intergalactic medium in the early universe, exceeding that of active galactic nuclei.",
author = "Lehmer, {B. D.} and Basu-Zych, {A. R.} and S. Mineo and Brandt, {W. N.} and Eufrasio, {R. T.} and T. Fragos and Hornschemeier, {A. E.} and B. Luo and Xue, {Y. Q.} and Bauer, {F. E.} and M. Gilfanov and P. Ranalli and Schneider, {D. P.} and O. Shemmer and P. Tozzi and Trump, {J. R.} and C. Vignali and Wang, {J. X.} and M. Yukita and A. Zezas",
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Lehmer, BD, Basu-Zych, AR, Mineo, S, Brandt, WN, Eufrasio, RT, Fragos, T, Hornschemeier, AE, Luo, B, Xue, YQ, Bauer, FE, Gilfanov, M, Ranalli, P, Schneider, DP, Shemmer, O, Tozzi, P, Trump, JR, Vignali, C, Wang, JX, Yukita, M & Zezas, A 2016, 'THE EVOLUTION of NORMAL GALAXY X-RAY EMISSION THROUGH COSMIC HISTORY: CONSTRAINTS from the 6 MS CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 825, no. 1, 7. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/825/1/7

THE EVOLUTION of NORMAL GALAXY X-RAY EMISSION THROUGH COSMIC HISTORY : CONSTRAINTS from the 6 MS CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH. / Lehmer, B. D.; Basu-Zych, A. R.; Mineo, S.; Brandt, W. N.; Eufrasio, R. T.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Luo, B.; Xue, Y. Q.; Bauer, F. E.; Gilfanov, M.; Ranalli, P.; Schneider, D. P.; Shemmer, O.; Tozzi, P.; Trump, J. R.; Vignali, C.; Wang, J. X.; Yukita, M.; Zezas, A.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 825, No. 1, 7, 01.07.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - THE EVOLUTION of NORMAL GALAXY X-RAY EMISSION THROUGH COSMIC HISTORY

T2 - CONSTRAINTS from the 6 MS CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH

AU - Lehmer, B. D.

AU - Basu-Zych, A. R.

AU - Mineo, S.

AU - Brandt, W. N.

AU - Eufrasio, R. T.

AU - Fragos, T.

AU - Hornschemeier, A. E.

AU - Luo, B.

AU - Xue, Y. Q.

AU - Bauer, F. E.

AU - Gilfanov, M.

AU - Ranalli, P.

AU - Schneider, D. P.

AU - Shemmer, O.

AU - Tozzi, P.

AU - Trump, J. R.

AU - Vignali, C.

AU - Wang, J. X.

AU - Yukita, M.

AU - Zezas, A.

PY - 2016/7/1

Y1 - 2016/7/1

N2 - We present measurements of the evolution of normal-galaxy X-ray emission from z 0-7 using local galaxies and galaxy samples in the 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The majority of the CDF-S galaxies are observed at rest-frame energies above 2 keV, where the emission is expected to be dominated by X-ray binary (XRB) populations; however, hot gas is expected to provide small contributions to the observed-frame 1 keV emission at z 1. We show that a single scaling relation between X-ray luminosity (LX) and star-formation rate (SFR) literature, is insufficient for characterizing the average X-ray emission at all redshifts. We establish that scaling relations involving not only SFR, but also stellar mass (M?) and redshift, provide significantly improved characterizations of the average X-ray emission from normal galaxy populations at z 0-7. We further provide the first empirical constraints on the redshift evolution of X-ray emission from both low-mass XRB (LMXB) and high-mass XRB (HMXB) populations and their scalings with M? and SFR, respectively. We find L2 10 keV - (LMXB)/M z ∗ μ + (1+z )2-3 - and L2 10 keV - (HMXB)/SFR+ (1 z), and show that these relations are consistent with XRB population-synthesis model predictions, which attribute the increase in LMXB and HMXB scaling relations with redshift as being due to declining host galaxy stellar ages and metallicities, respectively. We discuss how emission from XRBs could provide an important source of heating to the intergalactic medium in the early universe, exceeding that of active galactic nuclei.

AB - We present measurements of the evolution of normal-galaxy X-ray emission from z 0-7 using local galaxies and galaxy samples in the 6 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. The majority of the CDF-S galaxies are observed at rest-frame energies above 2 keV, where the emission is expected to be dominated by X-ray binary (XRB) populations; however, hot gas is expected to provide small contributions to the observed-frame 1 keV emission at z 1. We show that a single scaling relation between X-ray luminosity (LX) and star-formation rate (SFR) literature, is insufficient for characterizing the average X-ray emission at all redshifts. We establish that scaling relations involving not only SFR, but also stellar mass (M?) and redshift, provide significantly improved characterizations of the average X-ray emission from normal galaxy populations at z 0-7. We further provide the first empirical constraints on the redshift evolution of X-ray emission from both low-mass XRB (LMXB) and high-mass XRB (HMXB) populations and their scalings with M? and SFR, respectively. We find L2 10 keV - (LMXB)/M z ∗ μ + (1+z )2-3 - and L2 10 keV - (HMXB)/SFR+ (1 z), and show that these relations are consistent with XRB population-synthesis model predictions, which attribute the increase in LMXB and HMXB scaling relations with redshift as being due to declining host galaxy stellar ages and metallicities, respectively. We discuss how emission from XRBs could provide an important source of heating to the intergalactic medium in the early universe, exceeding that of active galactic nuclei.

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