The exceptionally extended flaring activity in the X-ray afterglow of GRB 050730 observed with swift and XMM-Newton

M. Perri, D. Guetta, L. A. Antonelli, A. Cucchiara, V. Mangano, J. Reeves, L. Angelini, A. P. Beardmore, P. Boyd, David Nelson Burrows, S. Campana, M. Capalbi, G. Chincarini, G. Cusumano, P. Giommi, J. E. Hill, S. T. Holland, V. La Parola, T. Mineo, A. Moretti & 10 others John Andrew Nousek, J. P. Osborne, C. Pagani, P. Romano, P. W.A. Roming, R. L.C. Starling, G. Tagliaferri, E. Troja, L. Vetere, N. Gehrels

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Aims. We observed the high redshift (z = 3.969) GRB 050730 with Swift and XMM-Newton to study its prompt and afterglow emission. Methods. We carried out a detailed spectral and temporal analysis of Swift and XMM-Newton observations. Results. The X-ray afterglow of GRB 050730 was found to decline along with time with superimposed intense flaring activity that extended over more than two orders of magnitude in time. Seven distinct re-brightening events starting from 236 s and up to 41.2 ks after the burst were observed. The underlying decay of the afterglow was well described by a double broken power-law model with breaks at t1 = 237 ±20 s and t2 = 10.1-2.2 +4.6 ks. The temporal decay slopes before, between and after these breaks were α1 = 2.1 ±0.3, α2 = 0.44-0.08+0.14 and α3 = 2.40 -0.07+0.09, respectively. The spectrum of the X-ray afterglow was well described by a photoelectrically absorbed power-law with an absorbing column density NHZ=(1.28-0.25 +0.26) × 1022 cm-2 in the host galaxy. Evidence was found of flaring activity in the early UVOT optical afterglow, simultaneous with that observed in the X-ray band. Strong X-ray spectral evolution during the flaring activity was present. The rise and decay power-law slopes of the first three flares were in the range 0.8-1.8 using as zero times the beginning and the peak of the flares, respectively. In the majority of flares (6/7), the ratio Δt/tp between the duration of the event and the time when the flare peaks was nearly constant and ∼ 0.6-0.7. We showed that the observed spectral and temporal properties of the first three flares are consistent with being due both to high-latitude emission, as expected if the flares were produced by late internal shocks, and to refreshed shocks, i.e. late time energy injections into the main afterglow shock by slow moving shells ejected from the central engine during the prompt phase. The event fully satisfies the Ep-Eiso Amati relation but is not consistent with the Ep vs. Ejet Ghirlanda relation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)83-92
Number of pages10
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume471
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2007

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XMM-Newton telescope
afterglows
newton
flares
power law
x rays
shock
temporal analysis
decay
spectral analysis
slopes
engine
shell
polar regions
spectrum analysis
engines
flaring
bursts
injection
galaxies

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Perri, M., Guetta, D., Antonelli, L. A., Cucchiara, A., Mangano, V., Reeves, J., ... Gehrels, N. (2007). The exceptionally extended flaring activity in the X-ray afterglow of GRB 050730 observed with swift and XMM-Newton. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 471(1), 83-92. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20066227
Perri, M. ; Guetta, D. ; Antonelli, L. A. ; Cucchiara, A. ; Mangano, V. ; Reeves, J. ; Angelini, L. ; Beardmore, A. P. ; Boyd, P. ; Burrows, David Nelson ; Campana, S. ; Capalbi, M. ; Chincarini, G. ; Cusumano, G. ; Giommi, P. ; Hill, J. E. ; Holland, S. T. ; La Parola, V. ; Mineo, T. ; Moretti, A. ; Nousek, John Andrew ; Osborne, J. P. ; Pagani, C. ; Romano, P. ; Roming, P. W.A. ; Starling, R. L.C. ; Tagliaferri, G. ; Troja, E. ; Vetere, L. ; Gehrels, N. / The exceptionally extended flaring activity in the X-ray afterglow of GRB 050730 observed with swift and XMM-Newton. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2007 ; Vol. 471, No. 1. pp. 83-92.
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abstract = "Aims. We observed the high redshift (z = 3.969) GRB 050730 with Swift and XMM-Newton to study its prompt and afterglow emission. Methods. We carried out a detailed spectral and temporal analysis of Swift and XMM-Newton observations. Results. The X-ray afterglow of GRB 050730 was found to decline along with time with superimposed intense flaring activity that extended over more than two orders of magnitude in time. Seven distinct re-brightening events starting from 236 s and up to 41.2 ks after the burst were observed. The underlying decay of the afterglow was well described by a double broken power-law model with breaks at t1 = 237 ±20 s and t2 = 10.1-2.2 +4.6 ks. The temporal decay slopes before, between and after these breaks were α1 = 2.1 ±0.3, α2 = 0.44-0.08+0.14 and α3 = 2.40 -0.07+0.09, respectively. The spectrum of the X-ray afterglow was well described by a photoelectrically absorbed power-law with an absorbing column density NHZ=(1.28-0.25 +0.26) × 1022 cm-2 in the host galaxy. Evidence was found of flaring activity in the early UVOT optical afterglow, simultaneous with that observed in the X-ray band. Strong X-ray spectral evolution during the flaring activity was present. The rise and decay power-law slopes of the first three flares were in the range 0.8-1.8 using as zero times the beginning and the peak of the flares, respectively. In the majority of flares (6/7), the ratio Δt/tp between the duration of the event and the time when the flare peaks was nearly constant and ∼ 0.6-0.7. We showed that the observed spectral and temporal properties of the first three flares are consistent with being due both to high-latitude emission, as expected if the flares were produced by late internal shocks, and to refreshed shocks, i.e. late time energy injections into the main afterglow shock by slow moving shells ejected from the central engine during the prompt phase. The event fully satisfies the Ep-Eiso Amati relation but is not consistent with the Ep vs. Ejet Ghirlanda relation.",
author = "M. Perri and D. Guetta and Antonelli, {L. A.} and A. Cucchiara and V. Mangano and J. Reeves and L. Angelini and Beardmore, {A. P.} and P. Boyd and Burrows, {David Nelson} and S. Campana and M. Capalbi and G. Chincarini and G. Cusumano and P. Giommi and Hill, {J. E.} and Holland, {S. T.} and {La Parola}, V. and T. Mineo and A. Moretti and Nousek, {John Andrew} and Osborne, {J. P.} and C. Pagani and P. Romano and Roming, {P. W.A.} and Starling, {R. L.C.} and G. Tagliaferri and E. Troja and L. Vetere and N. Gehrels",
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Perri, M, Guetta, D, Antonelli, LA, Cucchiara, A, Mangano, V, Reeves, J, Angelini, L, Beardmore, AP, Boyd, P, Burrows, DN, Campana, S, Capalbi, M, Chincarini, G, Cusumano, G, Giommi, P, Hill, JE, Holland, ST, La Parola, V, Mineo, T, Moretti, A, Nousek, JA, Osborne, JP, Pagani, C, Romano, P, Roming, PWA, Starling, RLC, Tagliaferri, G, Troja, E, Vetere, L & Gehrels, N 2007, 'The exceptionally extended flaring activity in the X-ray afterglow of GRB 050730 observed with swift and XMM-Newton', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 471, no. 1, pp. 83-92. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361:20066227

The exceptionally extended flaring activity in the X-ray afterglow of GRB 050730 observed with swift and XMM-Newton. / Perri, M.; Guetta, D.; Antonelli, L. A.; Cucchiara, A.; Mangano, V.; Reeves, J.; Angelini, L.; Beardmore, A. P.; Boyd, P.; Burrows, David Nelson; Campana, S.; Capalbi, M.; Chincarini, G.; Cusumano, G.; Giommi, P.; Hill, J. E.; Holland, S. T.; La Parola, V.; Mineo, T.; Moretti, A.; Nousek, John Andrew; Osborne, J. P.; Pagani, C.; Romano, P.; Roming, P. W.A.; Starling, R. L.C.; Tagliaferri, G.; Troja, E.; Vetere, L.; Gehrels, N.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 471, No. 1, 01.08.2007, p. 83-92.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The exceptionally extended flaring activity in the X-ray afterglow of GRB 050730 observed with swift and XMM-Newton

AU - Perri, M.

AU - Guetta, D.

AU - Antonelli, L. A.

AU - Cucchiara, A.

AU - Mangano, V.

AU - Reeves, J.

AU - Angelini, L.

AU - Beardmore, A. P.

AU - Boyd, P.

AU - Burrows, David Nelson

AU - Campana, S.

AU - Capalbi, M.

AU - Chincarini, G.

AU - Cusumano, G.

AU - Giommi, P.

AU - Hill, J. E.

AU - Holland, S. T.

AU - La Parola, V.

AU - Mineo, T.

AU - Moretti, A.

AU - Nousek, John Andrew

AU - Osborne, J. P.

AU - Pagani, C.

AU - Romano, P.

AU - Roming, P. W.A.

AU - Starling, R. L.C.

AU - Tagliaferri, G.

AU - Troja, E.

AU - Vetere, L.

AU - Gehrels, N.

PY - 2007/8/1

Y1 - 2007/8/1

N2 - Aims. We observed the high redshift (z = 3.969) GRB 050730 with Swift and XMM-Newton to study its prompt and afterglow emission. Methods. We carried out a detailed spectral and temporal analysis of Swift and XMM-Newton observations. Results. The X-ray afterglow of GRB 050730 was found to decline along with time with superimposed intense flaring activity that extended over more than two orders of magnitude in time. Seven distinct re-brightening events starting from 236 s and up to 41.2 ks after the burst were observed. The underlying decay of the afterglow was well described by a double broken power-law model with breaks at t1 = 237 ±20 s and t2 = 10.1-2.2 +4.6 ks. The temporal decay slopes before, between and after these breaks were α1 = 2.1 ±0.3, α2 = 0.44-0.08+0.14 and α3 = 2.40 -0.07+0.09, respectively. The spectrum of the X-ray afterglow was well described by a photoelectrically absorbed power-law with an absorbing column density NHZ=(1.28-0.25 +0.26) × 1022 cm-2 in the host galaxy. Evidence was found of flaring activity in the early UVOT optical afterglow, simultaneous with that observed in the X-ray band. Strong X-ray spectral evolution during the flaring activity was present. The rise and decay power-law slopes of the first three flares were in the range 0.8-1.8 using as zero times the beginning and the peak of the flares, respectively. In the majority of flares (6/7), the ratio Δt/tp between the duration of the event and the time when the flare peaks was nearly constant and ∼ 0.6-0.7. We showed that the observed spectral and temporal properties of the first three flares are consistent with being due both to high-latitude emission, as expected if the flares were produced by late internal shocks, and to refreshed shocks, i.e. late time energy injections into the main afterglow shock by slow moving shells ejected from the central engine during the prompt phase. The event fully satisfies the Ep-Eiso Amati relation but is not consistent with the Ep vs. Ejet Ghirlanda relation.

AB - Aims. We observed the high redshift (z = 3.969) GRB 050730 with Swift and XMM-Newton to study its prompt and afterglow emission. Methods. We carried out a detailed spectral and temporal analysis of Swift and XMM-Newton observations. Results. The X-ray afterglow of GRB 050730 was found to decline along with time with superimposed intense flaring activity that extended over more than two orders of magnitude in time. Seven distinct re-brightening events starting from 236 s and up to 41.2 ks after the burst were observed. The underlying decay of the afterglow was well described by a double broken power-law model with breaks at t1 = 237 ±20 s and t2 = 10.1-2.2 +4.6 ks. The temporal decay slopes before, between and after these breaks were α1 = 2.1 ±0.3, α2 = 0.44-0.08+0.14 and α3 = 2.40 -0.07+0.09, respectively. The spectrum of the X-ray afterglow was well described by a photoelectrically absorbed power-law with an absorbing column density NHZ=(1.28-0.25 +0.26) × 1022 cm-2 in the host galaxy. Evidence was found of flaring activity in the early UVOT optical afterglow, simultaneous with that observed in the X-ray band. Strong X-ray spectral evolution during the flaring activity was present. The rise and decay power-law slopes of the first three flares were in the range 0.8-1.8 using as zero times the beginning and the peak of the flares, respectively. In the majority of flares (6/7), the ratio Δt/tp between the duration of the event and the time when the flare peaks was nearly constant and ∼ 0.6-0.7. We showed that the observed spectral and temporal properties of the first three flares are consistent with being due both to high-latitude emission, as expected if the flares were produced by late internal shocks, and to refreshed shocks, i.e. late time energy injections into the main afterglow shock by slow moving shells ejected from the central engine during the prompt phase. The event fully satisfies the Ep-Eiso Amati relation but is not consistent with the Ep vs. Ejet Ghirlanda relation.

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